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India’s arguably generous maternity law benefits m...

In India, working mothers-to-be are far better-of than most of their peers in the developed world, however, the country’s maternity laws are archaic. A year or two ago, the country passed the Maternity (Amendment) Bill aimed at working women and their right to paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks which is the world’s third-highest. There is a no-win situation nonetheless — the law is meant for companies with a headcount of at least ten employees which is just a minuscule proportion of the working women of India.This limitation in maternity benefits is an upshot of the desire of the elite of India to merely mimic policies that are both purposed and executed in the West, without any sort of fine-tuning suiting Indian conditions. The maternity bill is an exemplary bill – phantom legislation that passes laws that don't have and in all probability will not be as effective as required. Progress or that one is doing something is an illusion, and is given, but the reality is something else. There is an ideological dimension to the law which is a part and parcel of what the Indian elite believes is good, just, and prestigious in communities transcending boundaries.Symbol of progressCanada and Norway are the only two countries, with GDPs per capita of 27 and 47 times higher than India’s, respectively, provide protracted maternity leaves in comparison with India. The moot point, however, isn’t the perception of generosity, but how the law is applied.It was estimated that the vast majority of Indian women shun work. While on the one hand the unorganized sector is comprised of over 80% of women working for companies with an employee headcount of less than ten. On the other hand, the organized sector comprises of 16% women workers, who do informal work, where the maternity law is not applicable.A more realistic assumption would be that a meagre 20% of the females work in the organized sector, then the law is potentially applicable to simply 1.3% of the workforce, or not even 1% of all females.Considering these off-the-cuff calculations, the unanswered question is why would India deplete its invaluable resources on ratifying a law that is applicable to a minuscule section of its growing population.Call 7604047601 for consultation with a registered expert maternity lawyer on Vidhikarya.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

2 days ago

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Mentally tortured husbands can appeal for granting...

In one particular case, the division bench permitted an appeal for granting a divorce decree in favor of the appealing husband for being tortured by the wife. The appellate judge may question the legality, validity and the propriety of the trial court’s judgment in which it had canceled the suit of the appellant or plaintiff for granting divorce decree of behavior torture and abandonment.Submissions by the AppellantThe appellant-husband may submit that the wife who is the respondent was disrespectful towards his parents and told his mother that meals were to be prepared according to what's on her menu. Another declaration of the appellant could be that the wife of the Respondent had reverted to her parental home within days of marriage and upon repeated requests of her in-laws reverted to her in-laws and that’s when she began cajoling the appellant to live apart.The appellant may state that even after having accepted all her demands, both her attitude and behavior remained unchanged. Matters worsen if the complaint filed by her turns out to be fake; a case in point would be a demand of dowry which, if not met would be the cause of her reverting to her parental home for good never to return to her appellant husband’s house ever again. Hence, in view of the prevailing circumstances, the plaintiff/appellant is likely to seek an of divorce decree on the plea of mental torture and abandonment. The wife of the respondent may deny all allegations and as a matter of fact, plead that she was tortured, the streedhan properties were retained by her in-laws and that the appellant accosted her with threats of divorcing her and remarrying. Besides, she may unequivocally mention her willingness to joining the appellant’s company.ObservationBy perusing the pleadings and depositions, it may turn out that the appellant’s allegations were according to what the depositions of the respondent, his parents, and other relatives were in a fake criminal case for an offense under Sections 498-A and 323 of Penal Code, 1860.An acquittal under Sections 498-A/34 and 323 IPC of the indicted person by the trial judge in regards to the levied charges. Furthermore, it was later noted that the respondent-wife did mention that she was a victim of crass and obscene behavior by both the appellant and the members of his family As and when the respondent-wife is examined, one question, in particular, is asked to the respondent and that is whether the respondent is eager and willing to live together with the appellant. If the answer is a resounding No then clearly the respondent’s allegations were falseand besides, if she was unwilling to live together with the appellant then her very own pleadings are suspect. UpheldIt was upheld that if the wife made any scandalous, vulgar and defamatory statements implicating the appellant’s family members it may cause mental torture to the husband. Besides, it was stated that if the wife fails to provide evidence supporting her unfounded, indecent and defamatory allegations then it would all be the causes of mental torture to the husband.Therefore, if the respondent-wife is unable to prove her scandalous and indecent allegations against the husband’s family and in addition if there is any demand for dowry then it would be a false claim causing mental agony to the husband. Therefore, the appeal for granting the divorce decree favoring the appellant for the dissolution of the marriage among the parties would be permitted.Call 7604047601 for consultation with registered expert divorce lawyers on Vidhikarya.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

3 days ago

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Snehal Vakilna Hemant Kumar Cyber Lawyer Surat

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  • What is International Law or Law of Nations?
  • What is the Constitutional Recognition of International Law?
  • What are the Examples of International Law?

Vidhikarya will help you find a most suitable lawyer, for you in your city, who will be able to answer all your International Laws related queries and also guide you on how to resolve this matter with ease.

About the International Laws


As per Black’s Law Dictionary, International Law refers to laws governing and determining the rights of independent nations during war or peace times. As per Oppenheim, “Law of Nations or international law is the name for the body of customary and conventional rules which are considered legally binding by civilized States in their intercourse with each other.”

The case of Queen v. Keyn observed that the “law of nations is the collection of usages which civilized State have agreed to observe in their dealings with one another.”

Constitutional Recognition of International Laws


Article 246 along with Entry 14 List I of the Constitution of India makes it very clear that the power of legislating upon international treaties rests solely with the Union Government. Article 253 of the Indian Constitution says the following-

Legislation for giving effect to international agreements notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference, association or other body.

Constitutional Recognition of International Laws


Law of the Sea is an example of international law. The mammoth policy provider in this domain is U.N. Conference held in Geneva in the year 1958 as well as the one held in 1960 in the same place. These conferences provided for different conventions like –

  • Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone,
  • Convention on the High Seas,
  • Convention on Fishing, and
  • Convention on the Continental Shelf. As per United Nations guidelines, 12 nautical miles from the baseline of a coastal is regarded as the sovereign territory of that State.

Some important facts and cases about and under International law


Supreme Court in the case of Vishaka v. State of Rajasthan (w.r.t sexual harassment at workplaces) observed that-

In the absence of domestic law occupying a field, to formulate effective measures to check the evil of sexual harassment of working women at all work places, the contents of International Conventions and norms are significant for the purpose of interpretation of the guarantees provided by the Constitution. It was observed that any international convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in harmony with its spirit must be read into these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to promote the various constitutional guarantees and safeguards.

Many times the principles of international treaties and conferences are exercised through local enactments and legislations. For example, to uphold the principles of Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest Convention on Cybercrime/Budapest Convention), India enacted the Information Technology Act of 2000.

Supreme Court in the case of ‘A.P. Pollution Control Board v. Prof. M.V. Nayadu’ recognised the international customary rule of ‘precautionary principle’.

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