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PRE-ARREST NOTICE - SECTION 41-A OF CRIMINAL POCEDURE CODE-         By Kishan Dutt KalaskarUnder Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, the right to life has been offered a principal status by the judiciary. Article 21 and 22 ensure against arbitrary detainment and arrest and the legal judiciary now. In a few cases, it has defended this interest and restricted the leader's power to make pointless arrest and confinement. Police have been charged over and over for making an unlawful arrest with no justification, and because of this, an average person, particularly from lower strata of society, needs to suffer a greater amount of this since he/she doesn't know about the law at the hour of arrest and the subsequent reason being that he/she can't draw in an Attorney soon the arrest is made, due to which the Police utilizing their capacity, abuse individuals under their authority and gets away with it without any problem. This Article attempts to analyze Section 41A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.  What Is Section 41a of Cr. P.C.?  As per Section 41 A of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter, 'Cr. P.C.'), if any police officer requires the participation of any individual who is not requiredto be fundamentally arrested under Section 41(1) of Cr.P.C. or against whom a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received, or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognizable offence," the official can give a notice for the equivalent. The individual to whom the Notice is served is obliged to show up at the specified place and time. The individual confirming to the Notice will not be arrested except if in any case considered fit by the Police for which the official is duty-bound to record reasons in writing. Inability to consent to the Notice is a ground for arrest.                                                    History of The 'Notice Of Appearance' Section 41A was added by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2008 (5 of 2009). However, recently after the enactment of this Amendment, representations were received by the Union Government. Thus, some specific amendments were brought in by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2010 (41 of 2010).The earlier sub-section (1) of Section 41A read: "The police officer may, in all cases where the arrest of a person is not required under the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 41, issue a notice directing the person against whom a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received, or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognizable offence, to appear before him or at such other place as may be specified in the notice."  The 2010 amendment ensured that a police officer issues such Notice by substituting 'shall' in place of 'may' vide section 3(a) of the 2010 amendment Act. The Amendment also enacted a proviso to section 41(1)(b)(ii) providing for recording of reasons for not arresting an accused. However, the Supreme Court directed in Arnesh Kumar case that issuing a notice of appearance under Section 41A was thoughtfully implemented. The Supreme Court held that their endeavour in this judgment is to ensure that a police officer does not arrest any accused unnecessarily, and the Magistrate does not authorize detention casually and mechanically. To confirm what the Top Court observed above, it gave the following direction:    (1) All the State Governments instruct its police officers not to automatically arrest when a case under Section 498-A of the I.P.C. is registered but to satisfy themselves about the necessary details before that arrest under the parameters laid down above flowing from Section 41 of Cr. P.C.;   (2) All police officers must be given a checklist that contains specified sub-clauses under Section 41(1)(b)(ii) of Cr.P.C.;   (3) The police officer should forward the checklist duly filed and produce the reasons and materials which necessitated the arrest while taking the accused before the Magistrate for his further detention;   (4) The Magistrate while authorizing detention of the accused shall pursue the report produced by the police officer in terms aforesaid and only after recording their satisfaction, the Magistrate will authorize detention;(5) The decision of not arresting an accused, must be forwarded to the Magistrate within two weeks from the date of the institution of the case with Police to the Magistrate which may be extended further by the Superintendent of Police of the district for the reasons to be recorded in writing;   (6) The Notice of appearance in terms of Section 41A of Cr. P.C. must be served on the accused within two weeks from the date of institution of the case, which may further be extended by the Superintendent of Police of the District for the reasons to be recorded in writing;   (7) A failure to comply with the directions aforesaid shall apart from rendering the police officers concerned liable for their departmental action; shall also be held liable for contempt of court, which is to be instituted before High Court having territorial jurisdiction.   (8) Authorizing detention without recording reasons as aforesaid by the judicial Magistrate concerned shall be liable for their departmental action by the High Court having territorial jurisdiction.   Finally, the Supreme Court added that the directions as mentioned earlier do not apply to the cases that fall under Section 498-A of the I.P.C. or Section 4 of the Dowry Prohibition Act, the matter in hand, but also such instances in which the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term not less than seven years, or which may extend to seven years; either with fine or without fine.   In Arnesh Kumar's case, the directions laid down are a statutory set of instructions to avoid unnecessary arrest. However, in this case, the safeguards deal with the incident of arrest and the power of arrest itself is not curtailed thereby.     In the case of Amandeep Singh Johar vs State of N.C.T. of Delhi and Anr., the Delhi High Court has laid down a model format for issuance of Notice under section 41A of the Cr.P.C., containing a warning at the end of the model notice format which states that the failure to comply with the terms of this Notice, can render a person liable for arrest under Section 41A (3) and (4) of Cr. P.C. Sub-section 3 of Section 41A contains a broader premise for arresting even though an accused appears before the investigating officer responds to the Notice of appearance. The said sub-section reads, "where such person complies and continues to comply with the notice, he shall not be arrested in respect of the offence referred to in the notice unless, for reasons to be recorded, the police officer believes that he ought to be arrested."    Difficulties underlying Section 41-ASection 41 A orders Notice's issuance to the blamed where the arrest for the individual isn't needed according to Section 41(1). Nonetheless, two peculiarities surface up;firstly, the authoritative content of Section 41(1) itself offers discretion to the Police in issues of arrest, as is obvious from the utilization of the word 'may' in the provision. Henceforth, it is open for the Police to decide whether a specific issue falls inside the ambit of Section 41(1) or 41A. Along these lines, the provision which was consolidated to restrict the power of arrest vested to Police under 41(1) has left it upon the Police himself to choose the relevance of the equivalent. Hence, if the Police consider the issue to be good for arrest under Section 41(1), he can at present do as such without any respect to the provisions of Section 41A.  Also, the utilization of subjective terms in the provision, for example, "reasonable complaint", "credible information'', "reasonable suspicion" open space for maltreatment of such powers and leaving tremendous degree for the Police to practice their prudence. Further, 41A (3) furnishes the Police with an occasion to arrest an individual even after confirming with the Notice if the Police believes that the arrest is vital. Additionally, the quick attentiveness to choose consistency with the Notice is vested in the Police. This provision especially builds the Police's ambit to arrest without a warrant – extending it to violations that don't fall under the limits of Section 41(1). The current peculiarities have not controlled themselves to administrative provisions, there have been various cases where abuse of the force vested under Section 41A has been affirmed or demonstrated.  In Tanuja Roy v. State of Assam and Ors., an F.I.R. under Section 420 and 406 being held up against the accused, three police officers from the Dispur Police Station powerfully took the Petitioner to the police headquarters at 1:00 am regardless of opposition from the candidate. She was confined discretionarily, for extended periods without being given any explanation, after which Notice was served to her under Section 41A. The game-plan received by the Police in the current case was uncalled-for. The Court descended intensely upon the Police Officials while holding their activities to be in contradiction of Section 46(4) of the Cr. P.C. Furthermore, not following what Section 41A specifies to deter the force under Section 41A of Cr.P.C., the investigatingofficer may control the F.I.R. Although the control of F.I.R. was not demonstrated in the moment case, such action isn't altogether uncommon. AnalysisAccording to Section 41- A of the Cr.P.C., on the off chance that Police feels that arrest isn't of need, at that point it would be legitimately judicious to give a notice which coordinates an individual against whom a sensible protest has been made and wherein a sensible doubt keeps on continuing, guiding the blamed being referred to show up before the official or at any place determined by Notice. It is the lawful obligation of the individual against whom the Notice has been coordinated to follow the Notice, and as long as he keeps on conforming to the states of the Notice, he will not be arrested, and wherein he neglects to do as such, he is subject to be detained relying on requests passed by a Competent Court.  The Police's optional power is practically limitless as they have limitless powers, particularly upon the perspective on the sub-section (3) of Section 41A which records that the Police can make arrests notwithstanding consistency from the charged. One should address whether this is in rebellion of the administrative aim of the provision.  A line of argument can be created which centres around a potential polarity between arrests made under Section 41 and 41A. Section 41A is summoned simply after; the Police utilizing their tact concludes that arrest of the speculated individual or people isn't needed. This is to state that, the Police have mulled over the entirety of the conditions referenced under Section 41 (1), preceding sending the speculated individual a notice according to Section 41A. Likewise, the High Court of Orissa held that this implies that the cases covered by Section 41(1) have been barred from the domain of Section 41-A. Thus, it is most likely to contend that the idea of arrests under the two sections is unique. This would also imply that the rules and the strategy set up in resulting decisions aremade under Section 41 and hence can't be applied to arrests made under Section 41A.  Presently on the off chance that we fathom a circumstance where, the accused's arrest is ordered under Section 41 (1), and the conditions and justification for arrest as determined in Section 41 are satisfied, and still, at the end of the day Section 41A can make a proviso helping the Police. It owns the Police itself to determine if the conditions in Section 41 were met or not to raise a reasonable ground for the utilization of Section 41A. It could offer ascent to occasions where the Police apply Section 41A and send a notice of appearance rather than straightforwardly capturing the individual. The explanations behind such an activity could be various. It may very well be done to dodge strategies set down by Arnesh Kumar concerning arrests made by the Police without a request. The methodology set up is to be followed compulsorily, and Section 41A permits the Police to get away from these techniques and arrest discretionarily. The Section likewise adds a purpose behind the Police to arrest a speculated individual – arrest for rebelliousness with the Notice's conditionsand consequently expanding the arrest forces.  Likewise, as the Section offers discretion to the Police, this all-around degenerate police power can manhandle this one case, the Police may require the presence of the blamed individual through Notice, while in a similar case another indistinguishably arranged individual to arrest. Subsequently, there is each probability that the Police will abuse this provision for ulterior reasons.  Another problematic part of the Section is that under the Section the Police can arrange the presumed individual to show up before the official at "such other place as determined in the notice". This would imply that the individual could be arranged to visit any place where the Police would require him and not merely the police headquarters.  Henceforth, note that the Police have abused the provision of Section 41-A. The said Section has exclusively vested its forces upon the Police along these lines, leaving space for it to be misused. The validity of the reports delivered by the Police to feature non-collaboration concerning the charges with exploring organizations or showing that they didn't show up when gathered should likewise be addressed. It isn't past the genuine to expect that a few notices are made after the individual has been arrestedin order to show that Notice was given on past dates. The extension for this provision to be authoritative is amazingly huge and that it has been demonstrated that the Police have utilized this provision to badger charged people, as found on account of Amandeep Singh Johar. It was never the aim of the assembly to consider blameless people to be annoyed by the Police, and it is incredibly remembered that while assessing the utilization of the provision of 41-A by the Police.  Presently to handle these rising misbehaviors through a change, the governing body set up a severe method to be followed while the issuance of a notice under Section 41A. In any case, the judgment and the methodology are tricky in their regard. A significant case for the assessment of Section 41-A is that of Amandeep Singh Johar versus the State of N.C.T. of Delhi. For this situation, the applicant advanced that notwithstanding consistency before the specialists, an F.I.R. came to be enrolled against him under Sec 498A and 406 of the I.P.C. He also featured how he was regularly brought to show up before the police headquarters. No composed notification was available in a few occurrences, which is an essential condition under Section 41-A. He affirmed both that the rules of Section 41-A disagreed and that these weren't sufficient to guarantee the security of the individuals called subjects of criminal examinations. The significant rules set somewhere near the Amandeep Singh Johar case included allowing rescheduling of the gathering if it isn't adverse to the Police and sensible. It additionally focused on the significance of consenting to the provisions of Section 41-A concerning the issuance of a notification by the Police. Notwithstanding, what is additionally noteworthy is that the judgment gave a route to the investigating officerto set down conditions other than those referenced by the Court which essentially must be followed, the disappointment of which would make an individual subject to be arrested as per Section 41-A (3). Ongoing judgments that have referenced the rules have not set up an away from the strategy given in Amandeep judgment; however, have marked the technique to be "rigidly and obligatorily applied".  ConclusionFrom the above discussion, because an examining officer having powers under the Cr.P.C can arrest an accused person for the reasons under Section 41 of the Cr.P.C, it isn't important to arrest a charged individual for each situation where a criminal offence is enlisted and is under scrutiny.  A decent measure of discretion must be left with the investigating officer to be reasonable for the public purpose behind the investigation, which is to discover reality on account of criminal offences, which are traditionally treated as offences against the tranquillity of the general public at large. Notwithstanding, this can't be at the expense of fundamental procedural fairness. The off chance that procedure is codified for shielding an accused from pointless arrest and for pre-FIR preliminary inquiry should be interpreted to protect an accused from unnecessary harassment. Subsequently, such a method can't be suggested by any implication to bias a prospective accused or accused individual. 

Posted By

Kishan Dutt Kalaskar Retired Judge

1 week ago

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NRI's Power of Attorney to sell property in India

There might be numerous occasions in an individual's life wherein he may be required to manage assets, properties, financial balances, and so forth, however,under certain circumstances, he may not be in the right condition to fittingly execute his/her obligations because of unanticipated conditions like being sick, being abroad (in the event of an NRI) or the individual is too old to perform his obligations. Therefore, during conditions where a monetary exchange must be completed, in situations where the presence of the individual who cannot show up actually, at that point the primary arrangement towards this is to delegate his powers, i.e., to act on behalf of the person. This procedure of delegation of power is called Power of Attorney (POA).An unanticipated circumstance where the legitimate proprietor cannot use his capacity is the point at which a Power of Attorney deed is executed. This practice is exceptionally famous for transferring one's powers to a trustworthy and honourable individual to direct activities like sale, leasing, registrations and so forth given that individual is busy or unavailable. Suppose you are a non-resident Indian and need to lead the immense monetary exchange in India, for example, selling the property. In that case, this could turn into a huge problem if one needs to make a trip to India and back at all times. There is a simpler and straightforward answer to this. By drawing up the Power of Attorney for the non-resident Indians to sell their property in India, one can undoubtedly complete their exchange without in a real sense heading out to India. A power of attorney to sell property in India is not complicated. Notwithstanding, in 2011, the Supreme Court of India in a landmark judgment saw that transferring property title through a General Power of Attorney (GPA) is illicit. Be that as it may, before learning the legitimateness of the Supreme Court request let us comprehend the idea of a Power of Attorney. What is a Power of Attorney? A Power of Attorney is an authorization granted by a written formal instrument whereby an individual named as the principal/donor authorizes another individual named as the attorney/agent/donee to act on his/her benefit. In India, a power of attorney is utilized by numerous property purchasers to help them with transactions engaged with purchasing a home. It could incorporate a capital acquisition of the place that is known for home, renting, selling the property or the home loan. When purchasing a home, a person should hire a dependable and reliable power of attorney who can assist an individual with the buy procedures. The POA is frequently utilized by NRIs hoping to purchase property in India. In the simplest terms, it is the power (right) that an individual (Principal) awards to an attorney (a legal representative). A principal-legal representative relationship is established between the two, and the acts of the legal representative would bound the Principal. For example, suppose an individual has bought a property in India and cannot be physically present to handle the registration. In that case, he can assign these rights/obligations to any family member/companion through a registered power of attorney. Kinds of POA Special POA: In a special POA, a power of attorney is confined and restricted to a particular purpose. A special POA might transaction-specific, and the POA ceases on the culmination of a transaction. General POA: Under a general POA, expansive powers are allowed to the representative to make decisions in the interest of the Principal. Additionally, the representative can likewise complete the different activities for the benefit of the Principal with no impediment on transactions. Durable POA: A durable POA stays effective for a lifetime except if it is expressly revoked. A particular condition can be inserted in the document, expressing that the representative's capacity would stay legitimate regardless of whether the Principal gets incapacitated. Usage of Power of Attorney Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, frequently travelling was impossible for some NRIs, in light of their jobs, occupied timetables and even affordability. Thus, the majority of them utilized the power of attorney instrument to lead different organizations in the nation of their origin. Under this legal course of action, one can endow anybody to represent them to conduct specific businesses on their behalf. Regardless of whether the NRI can return to India to make the purchase, eventually, they need to employ a legal representative, for asset management purposes. Utilizing the POA instrument, an NRI can conduct different real estate-related organizations in India, including sale, purchase, leasing, mortgaging, etc. Additionally, if a property is together held, it very well may be hard for all the co-owners to present themselves and complete an exchange. Via granting a POA to one individual, the joint owners can move ahead without any issues. Power of Attorney in Real Estate:In Real Estate, a power of attorney plays a critical function in the transaction of the buy or sale of a home. For a long time, the authority of the POA was mishandled as they were utilized to avoid the payment of a capital gains taxwhich led to the investment of black money. In light of this issue, the Supreme Court passed a law expressing that POA should just be utilized for genuine transactions and not for the transfer of the title or right to someone else or property. On the other hand, any POA that is assigned to help with the exchanges of the property should be registered with a sub-recorder who is situated in the jurisdiction where the purchaser lives. If the home-purchaser is an NRI, the POA picked should be certified by the consulate of the nation they live in. What are the basic provisions in a Power of Attorney? While initiating a Power of Attorney, it is fundamental to cover explicit mandatory provisos relying on the kind of power of attorney that is being made. Coming up next are the basic provisos that must be remembered for a Power of Attorney deed: Complete details of the Principal/donor making the Power of Attorney like his name, age, address as well as his present occupation. Important information of the agent/attorney/donee that is the individual who is getting the authority. The reason to grant the power to someone else must be clarified and be legitimate. The time, a date just as the place of making the Power of Attorney deed and its execution date also (date from which the Power of Attorney comes into force). If the Power of Attorney is time-bound, at that point, the planned date of the end of the Power of Attorney and on the off chance that there is no mention of the limit of the same it is to be referenced whether the Power of Attorney is durable or non-durable. Suppose there should arise an occurrence of a general power that is being granted. In that case, the Deed must specify the complete details of all the acts as well as the areas of allowing the said power. For example, if a general power about a property is granted, at that point, the Principal can grant the ability to lease or purchase any property while not being authorized to sell any of the properties. In the event of extraordinary power, the grant of the particular duty/assignment that should be performed by the agent/attorney must be specified in the Deed. The Deed should likewise indicate the time limit of the special power within which the obligation must be finished. How can a Power of Attorney be executed in India ?If an NRI is available in India, he could execute the POA from India itself, before travelling to another country -Stage 1: The NRI needs to get the ideal matter of the POA drafted and composed on non-legal stamp paper of good worth which is by and large Rs 100. Stage 2: Along with the legal representatives and two witnesses, the individual is needed to visit the Sub-Registrar's Office. Stage 3: It should be guaranteed that all the people setting off to the Sub-Registrar's Office are conveying their valid identity proof. Copy of the POA, alongside the first duplicate, should likewise be brought. Stage 4: At the Sub-Registrar's office signatures, photos and fingerprints of the gathering will be gathered. Stage 5: Now, a person needs to gather the registered POA on the due date from the Sub-Registrar's Office. It may take three-five days after the formalities have been finished. Consider the possibility that you are outside India. On the off chance that you are settled abroad and won't have the option to visit India, you may execute a POA from the nation of your residence through the Indian Embassy/Consulate. There are two different ways to execute a POA from abroad:Legalization: For this situation, signatures of the notary or judge before whom the POA is executed are needed to be verified by the appropriately authorized representative of the Indian Embassy/Consulate. As indicated by Section 3 of the Diplomatic and Consular Officers (Oaths and Fees) Act, 1948, notarizing a deed from an approved official of the Indian Consulate/Embassy would be viewed as a legitimate public accountant. Such a POA is not needed to be stopped at the hour of execution. Be that as it may, it should be stamped within three months from the date of receipt of the POA in India. Stamp obligation would be payable as indicated by Section 2(17) read with Schedule-I of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, when the Deed is presented for registration in India. Apostallisation: The Deed of POA executed external India is demonstrated through an apostallisation cycle which is administered by The Hague Convention, 1961. Otherwise called super legalization, an apostille is a certificate which affirms and checks the signature/seal of the individual who authenticated the document. Be that as it may, this Deed, as well, requirements to follow Indian laws, for example, the Indian Registration Act, 1908, and the Power of Attorney Act, 1882. A person likewise needs to pay the stamp obligation on this. Regulation of Power of Attorney: A POA paper should be interpreted to incorporate all the vital powers for its execution. The POA must be given a strict interpretation, and no additional rights should be interpreted except if they are explicitly referred. For example, if the POA refers to "option to rent", the "option to sell" cannot be credited to it. The representative needs to act inside his scope and cannot bind the Principal by his acts which are beyond his power. As an NRI, you cannot be sued or considered answerable for the extortion of the agent, except if it is demonstrated that the misrepresentation was done in intrigue with you. Repudiation of Power of Attorney Suppose the Principal feels that the legal representative is abusing power allowed to him or cannot appropriately discharge the duties allotted to him. In that case, he has the choice to renounce the POA. Repudiation may likewise be required if the Principal thinks that now he is in a situation to deal with his assets. How to deny a Power of Attorney? ·        You may deny a POA during your lifetime. ·        POA is additionally renounced when the Principal dies or gets insane or is declared insolvent. ·        POA can be revoked on commonly agreed terms between the Principal and the representative. ·        A POA is repudiated when the particular exchange for which it was executed has been accomplished. Revocation of POA must be conducted in a similar way in which it was executed. If the POA was registered with the Sub-Registrar, you need to get it revoked from a similar office. Likewise, the representatives and the parties concerned should be appropriately educated about the cancellation of the POA. If the interests of an enormous number of individuals are included, it is suggested that a notification be distributed in a paper. A notification about the repudiation of the POA could likewise be posted on the property where it tends to be obvious to the general public. Court precedentThere have been numerous situations where individuals resort to property deal through POA to evade instalment of stamp obligation, which is illegal. Besides, selling properties where the proprietor has just right over possession, and no right over ownership through POA is additionally illegal. A fair exchange of title and proprietorship cannot occur if the deal is done through a POA and not using a sale deed. The Supreme Court of India in 2011 announced that "a power of attorney is not an instrument of transfer concerning any right, title or interest in an immovable property". Following the equivalent, the Indian Apex court coordinated the metropolitan bodies not to change or register properties dependent on such archives. The Supreme Court, notwithstanding, restored those legitimate exchanges that have been brought out through GPA would be lawful. The court additionally stated, "Nothing keeps influenced parties from getting registered deeds of conveyance to complete their title. The said exchanges may likewise be utilized to acquire explicit execution or to protect ownership under Section-53 An of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882." Because of this Supreme Court order, various states across India disallowed the registration of properties that were sold through a GPA. Besides, this landmark judgment of the Supreme Court has just assisted with limiting the free progression of black money somewhat in the real estate in India, where property titles are controlled way time and again. Other than this, because of this, a ton of property exchanges where costs were rounded off till now will be influenced. Notwithstanding, after a total restriction on such properties was forced, the Delhi government at long last consented to allow registration of properties for the legitimate proprietor's spouses, children, siblings as well as any other family member or individual of trust of the enlisted proprietor. Conclusion As an NRI living abroad, it is frequently difficult to keep steady over the procedures of your new home and dive into the basic essential details of the buy or sale. Consequently, allotting a POA is not just practical yet additionally accorded protection. If a new rule imposed by the government or property developer, you may be required to sign some documents and your POA can sign them on your behalf. Alternatively, if you are the victim of fraud during the real estate dealings, you POA can be presented as evidence in court. The way toward naming a POA is basic and direct, and as an NRI, it is emphatically suggested that you select one in your nation of origin to fill in as your delegate for any land exchanges. The author of this blog/Article is Kishan Dutt Kalaskar, a Retired Judge and practising advocate having an experience of 35+ years in handling different legal matters. He has prepared and got published Head Notes for more than 10,000 Judgments of the Supreme Court and High Courts in different Law Journals. From his experience he wants to share this beneficial information for the individuals having any issues with respect to their related matters .

Posted By

Kishan Dutt Kalaskar Retired Judge

4 weeks ago

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Abhishek Dutta


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: Bangalore |

State Bar Council

: Karnataka

Professional Summary

Abhishek Dutta specializes in the practice area of Mergers & Acquisitions, Private Equity Venture Capital deal, and Restructuring & Turn Around practice, General Corporate & Commercial Laws.

Abhishek provides advice to a broad base of domestic and international clients in strategizing , structuring and assisting in complex documentations and negotiations in relation to mergers & acquisitions deals, investment transactions, businesses restructuring, assets takeovers deals, regulatory matters related to corporate & commercial laws, merger controls, validation of regulator impact on business models and day to day compliance, secretarial, contractual and labour matters.

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