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Can a Woman Keep her Surname after Marriage?

Adopting a new surnameHistorically, the expectation and indeed the norm was that a woman would assume the husband’s surname after marriage. Women did not even think twice about assuming her husband’s surname after marriage. As times are changing keeping the maiden name hyphenated with the husband’s surname is apparently a fad. Both in same-sex and opposite-sex marriages these days there isn’t any hard and fast rule anymore that the wife must assume the surname of her husband. It’s a moot point that modern married women who may be working professionals having to change their surnames by assuming their husband’s surname. Rather keeping their surnames after marriage maybe is a practical and rational choice rather than a compulsion based on custom.Undeniably assuming the husband’s surname after marriage is indeed a lot of hassle in the sense that married women have to change their surnames on all of their government IDs including Aadhar card, PAN card, Voter ID so on and so forth which women of this day and age intend to avoid. Women could not voice their opinion probably until a few decades ago. They were more docile as men played a dominant role in society. They had to submit to the diktats of custom or tradition. With times changing though, these days both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages have several options and they are as follows:Women can assume the last name of their husbands Women can keep their maiden namesThe maiden name of a wife can be hyphenated along with the surname of the husbandA new surname that is a fusion of the surnames of both the spouses could be created and can be used by both spousesSpouses may prefer keeping their own surnames but their children’s surnames can be hyphenated The run-up to marriage is fraught with making decisions. There are numerous decisions on the anvil namely the color scheme, the food, and the venue. Decisions need to be made after the marriage as well. One of those vital decisions to be made is whether or not the woman would assume the surname of her husband or keep her maiden name after marriage. Recent reports indicate that a vast majority of brides tend to take the husband’s surname after marriage while the remaining opt to either retain their maiden name or opt to hyphenate which is the case for same-sex couples as well. A survey revealed that female couples more than their male counterparts preferred to assume the name of their male spouse after marriage.The question invariably is whether a name change is right or wrong. There isn’t a right answer working for everyone and one has to consider several aspects to assume the name of one’s partner.Name Change through Common UsageIt's entirely the discretion of the wife as to whether or not the wife would assume the surname of her husband. However, if the wife decides on changing his/her surname one can through “common usage” fairly easily. The wife historically had this option of adopting her husband’s surname.Although common usage name changes in instances of same-sex marriages, ought to be valid, however as same-sex marriage adds a relatively new dimension to marital bonding, one may have to get a name change ordered by the court.For legal validation of a name change by applying the common usage method the steps to follow are:A copy of one’s marriage certificate as proof of name changeAn updated driver’s license against a copy of one’s marriage certificateGet a new Aadhar card/PAN card/Voter ID card with one’s new surname against one’s marriage certificate, andUpdating any bank, insurance, passport, or employer records against one’s marriage certificateThis process can be completed relatively easily if the new surname after marriage reflects on one’s marriage certificate. If one already has children or having children is in the works then one might as well change one’s name so as to have a single-family name for all family members. However, if a new surname different from the surname of the other spouse is to be used by a spouse, the spouse intending a name change would have to undergo the official name change ordered by the court. If there is malafide intention of committing fraud or concealing an identity then a name change is undesirable and can be prevented in some jurisdictions.Name Change through a Court OrderA court-ordered name change in comparison with the common usage name change though is complicated is by far simpler to complete. In the vast majority of cases, a request for a name change has to be submitted along with an order proposal to be reviewed and signed by a judge.In all likelihood, a judge may set a date for the hearing of one’s case ensuring that one's request for the name change is not, in fact, a malafide intention of committing fraud.  Once the order has been received with one’s request granted, one has to undergo the common usage process for changing one’s name on one’s driver’s license, Aadhar Card, PAN Card and Voter ID card. ?Rather than provide a copy of one’s marriage certificate, submitting the certified copy of the name change court order is the requirement. If you need any professional advice, speak to an expert lawyer on a name change after marriage at Vidhikarya.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

1 day ago

Can a Husband get Maintenance from his Wife?

For both spouses, divorce is as stressful as its challenging. Finance among other key aspects of divorce can only be handled by an expert financial advisor for their clients. There are legal services connecting top lawyers to clients and in the process facilitate effective assistance in a wide variety of financial issues including and transcending alimony/ maintenance, financial security, asset/property distribution, child support, financial planning after divorce and the resultant tax implications.According to divorce lawyers, after divorce alimony payment to the husband by the wife is enforceable by the husband but whether or not the wife is liable to pay alimony/maintenance is for the courts to decide and accordingly take a call on granting the same. Maintenance and expenses of proceedings If it appears to the court in any proceeding u/s 24 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 that either the husband or the wife whatever be the case, is not financially independent enough to be self-supporting and to afford the proceeding’s necessary expenses let alone child custody after divorce, it may, contingent upon the husband or the wife applying for a divorce petition, the court orders the respondent to ensure that the petitioner gets paid on account of the expenses of the proceeding an amount commensurate with the petitioner’s own income and that of the respondent it may appear to be reasonable to the court. Permanent alimony and maintenance(1) Courts with jurisdiction according to section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 can, while passing a decree or subsequently, on the basis of an application made to the court for permanent alimony and maintenance by either spouse, as may actually be the case, decree that the respondent pay the applicant for either spouse’s maintenance and support a gross monthly amount or an amount periodically with the term of the payment not to exceed the lifetime of the applicant commensurate with the income of the respondent and the applicant’s any other property, the parties conduct, and other situations relevant to the case, the court may deem it to be just and fair in securing similar payments if required by putting a lien on the respondent’s immoveable property.(2) The satisfaction of the Court in regards to the possible altered situation of either party after the order has been passed under sub-section (1) of section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 is vital. The Court may still at the behest of either the husband or the wife, modify, vary, or rescind such orders according to the best judgment of the court.(3) Should the Court be satisfied with the fact that the order passed in favor of a party remarries or, if the said party happens to be the wife, who is not chaste or if the said party happens to be the husband, who may have had  an extramarital affair, the court may similarly at the behest of the other husband or the wife as the case may be, vary, modify or rescind such orders in a way the court may deem fair and just.Amongst other rights validated by divorce and matrimonial laws, the most crucial right is the right of receiving and claiming alimony or maintenance. Usually, alimony is an allowance which the husband has to pay to the wife following the orders of the court for the wife’s sustenance.   There are five distinct communities that constitute our society including Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Parsis, and Jews. The personal laws of each community are derived from customs, traditions and religious scriptures. Therefore, the purpose of a Hindu woman seeking divorce and alimony, for example, may differ from community to community. Likewise, the law on alimony and maintenance may vary as the applicable personal law keeps changing from community to community. Under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 for example, both spouses have a legal entitlement towards permanent alimony and maintenance. If the couple remarries though, under the Special Marriage Act 1954, it's only the wife who would be entitled to permanent alimony and maintenance. In the case of mutual consent divorce of a couple, it's for the couples to arrive at an agreement as to whether or not any alimony or maintenance payments are to be made by any of the parties. In cases of this nature, alimony/maintenance payments can go both ways; the husband to the wife as well as the wife to the husband based on how well the couples understand each other. The court’s passing of the divorce decree is based on the terms agreed-upon among couples. The decree is binding on the couple and is enforceable by a court of law.The hot topic these days regarding divorce is whether or not ex-husbands can claim maintenance from their ex-wives. It has always been the other way round. The blog talks about maintenance and expenses of proceedings as well as permanent alimony and maintenance.Get in touch with Vidhikarya Legal Services, an enabler or facilitator when it comes to connecting clients to best lawyers with huge experience in handling family and marital issues.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

3 days ago

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Consult Top Software License Lawyers in India

Arvind Tripathi

Lawyer
Exp
Allahabad , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Civil
  • Criminal
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Divorce
Mr. Arvind Tripathi, Advocate is an Advocate with 30 years of experience in Civil and Criminal matters. He specializes in Service and Bail matters. He runs a Law Firm by the name of Mimansa Law Firm which is very reputed firm in the whole of Uttar Pradesh. View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 2

Jatin Sharma

Advocate and Legal Consultant
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Aviation
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
Total Answers Given : 1

Vishal Saxena

Advocate
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Aviation
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
Total Answers Given : 1

Amit Verma

Advocate
Exp
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
  • Election Campaign and Political Laws
  • Environment and Natural Resources

Ramesh Babu Kasetty

Lawyer and Legal Consultant for Business
Exp
Hyderabad , Andhra Pradesh

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Contracts and Agreements
  • Criminal
  • Civil
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
Mr. Ramesh Kasetty is a highly experience and qualified law professional. He graduated in Law from Osmania University and has enormous knowledge on Contract drafting and reviewing, Trademark Process, Litigation services, Document review, Legal Notices, Bail petitions and other court matters in India View Full Profile

DHIRAJ SAGAR

ADVOCATE
Exp
Patna , Bihar

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Government Contracts
  • International Laws
  • Open Source Codes

Sudhir J. Parashe

Independent Lawyer
Exp
Kolhapur , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Financial Markets And Services
  • Government Contracts
I am Sr. Advocate having more than 15 years of experience and practicing at Kolhapur & Pune city, handling all civil matters, corporate, banking, property, Consumer, Employment related, cheque bouncing & drafting of all documents/agreements. DRT matters, legal opinions, legal notices /replies View Full Profile

Kishore Kumar Patnaik

Advocate
Exp
Koraput , Orissa

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
  • Environment and Natural Resources
  • Government Contracts
  • Intellectual Property

Avijit Roy

Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Environment and Natural Resources
  • Intellectual Property

Aditya Khamparia

Advocate
Exp
East Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Software License
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Aviation
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
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  • What is Software Licensing?
  • What are Software License Laws?
  • Which Specific Laws regulate software Licensing?
  • What is the Importance of Software License?

Enabling an individual or gathering to utilize a bit of software will be Software licensing. Almost all applications are licensed as opposed to sold. There are a wide range of sorts of software licenses. Some depend on the number machines on which the licensed program can run though others depend on the quantity of clients that can utilize the program. Most PC software licenses enable you to run the program on just a single machine and to make duplicates of the software just for reinforcement purposes. A few licenses additionally enable you to run the program on various PCs as long as you don't utilize the duplicates all the while. A software license (or software license in region use) is a legitimate instrument administering the utilization or redistribution of copyright secured software.

What is Software Licensing?


A software license is a legal instrument usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material governing the use or redistribution of software. Under copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.

Software licenses are categorised as following-


  • Proprietary software is software which is the legitimate property of one party. The terms of utilization for different parties is characterized by contracts or licensing agreements. These terms may incorporate different benefits to share, adjust, and utilize the software and its code
  • A free software license is a software permit which gifts beneficiaries rights to adjust and redistribute the software which would some way or another be denied by copyright law. A free software permit awards, to the beneficiaries, flexibilities as consents to change or disperse copyrighted work.
  • Open source software alludes to any program whose source code is made accessible for utilize or change by clients and is made unreservedly accessible. Open Source empowers the clients to see and adjust the source code.

What are Software Licensing Laws?


There are no specific laws on software licensing in India. A computer Software Contract is governed by the principles of Indian Contract Act,1872. If the software is taken as goods then The Indian Sales of Goods Act,1932.
In the case of TCS the Apex Court considered computer software as goods. Even Intellectual Property once put into a media such as CD or DVD is considered as goods.

Specific Laws regulate software Licensing


Software licence are regulated by the Copyright Laws, Contract Laws, & the Trade Secret Laws.

  • Copyright’s Law – it has been framed in accordance with the changes demanded by TRIPS.
  • Contract Law- breach of contract under section 75 can secure the infringement under software licensing agreements. The infringement of the states of license is however subject to translation and rationale. The licensor however can secure such license by explicitly giving the terms and conditions under the assertion identifying with the rights and liabilities of the licensee and licensor himself. Just issue common in the viable market is the "standard terms" of the license which the licensee frequently overlooks while tolerating the license before downloading the software. The Indian courts have a cracked sentiment with respect to these STANDARD TERMS. Some have favoured the merchants and some have favoured the licensee
  • Trade Secret Law talks about protection of undisclosed information
  • Income Tax- software licensing, income emerging from permitting 'right to use' of Indian software purchasers is really offer of copyrighted article which does not include exchange of copyright and such receipt isn't royalty under Sec 9(1)(vi).

Importance of Software Licensing -


Businesses must be savvy in the licenses they purchase to ensure firstly they are using software legally and secondly, they aren’t paying for licenses that aren’t being used. By acquiring too many software licenses you’re wasting company resources, without enough you leave yourself liable to a potential lawsuit (which is quite costly). Finding the right license agreement can also make it easier to manage software in your company.

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