Menu
keyboard_backspace
Consult and get Expert Advice on Torts Laws matters from the best Torts Lawyers in India. Let us know your requirement we will help you to find the best Lawyer suited for your matter within your budget.

Get Expert Advice Online
from Top Torts Lawyers
in India

Read Blogs to get more Insights

A Rape Covered Under The Veil Of Marriage

A Rape Covered Under The Veil Of Marriage By Ashish Ranjan Samal, Advocate Orissa High Court 1. Introduction Whenever Mahira, who is 25 years old, has a fight or a heated argument with her husband, he takes it out on her in the bed. She is merely a toy for him whom he can use differently every night. He forces himself on her, every single day, even during her periods. Their relationship has never been about 'consent' and 'equality'. Similarly, many women are subjected to dowry harassment and brutal rape which involves inflictions with torch lights leading to serious injuries. These are just a few examples out of the plethora of such cases. These women are all married and they have to go through such kind of violence and forced intercourse. Is a wife merely a tool to vent out sexual and emotional tension and frustration? Marital rape is an oxymoron. Yet marriage and rape have an unfortunate continued relationship in India. Both rape and marriage are considered ways of gaining control over a woman's body since time immemorial. This was also exemplified in the infamous Imrana rape case[1] where back in 2005, 28-year-old Imrana, a mother of five, was raped by her 69-year-old father-in-law. And the Panchayat (local council) declared her marriage to her husband as void since she had had sex with her father-in-law and by virtue of her physical relationship with her father-in-law she was also told to treat her own husband as her son. The dictionary meaning of the word "rape" is "ravishing or violation of a woman" which in its generic term "Raptus" implies violent theft, applied to both property and person. Rape is the word for forced or coerced sex. It is when the woman has not had the opportunity to freely give consent or she is unable to give consent. Marital rape is the non-consensual sex committed by the spouse. It is also known as partner rape or rape in marriage. 2. Indirect laws addressing Marital Rape Marriage in India is considered a holy sacrament between a husband and his wife. When a man marries a woman, it not only brings implied consent of sexual intercourse but also the man's duty to give due respect to the dignity of his wife. When the husband commits unwanted forceful intercourse with his wife, he breaks the confidence of his wife and breaches her trust in him. Lately, Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code i.e. the anti-dowry law is voluminously misused by the women and a considerable number of rape cases reported each year are also false. Proving marital rape and taking bedrooms to courtrooms in such cases is not only a difficult but also a dangerous idea.[2] As per the Indian penal legislation i.e., Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code- "Sexual intercourse" or "sexual acts" by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape." [3] Exception to Section 375[4] of IPC provides immunity to the husband who rapes his wife and declares marital rape as legal and does not consider it as rape. This shows that the concept of marital rape goes beyond the virtues of Article 21[5] of the Constitution of India i.e. right to live with human dignity. Marital rape prima facie violates Article 14[6] of the Constitution as it creates a classification between married and unmarried women and denies equal protection of the criminal legislation to the former.[7] Though marital rape violates basic human rights that are attributed to every human being under the purview of these Articles there are not many remedies available to the victim. Therefore, in India, marital rape can come under cruelty clauses of section 498A of IPC. Cruelty covers physical and mental harassment. Punishment is imprisonment for a maximum period of three years with fine. The remedies for cruelty under the Indian Penal Code take years to reach an outcome. In view of this, victims remain victims. They either give in, or give up. Another remedy available to the wife is under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 which deals with protection of women from physical and mental cruelties of all forms, including sexual abuse. Family Courts as well as Magistrates provide counseling to the husband under domestic violence laws. But unfortunately, the provisions of this Act provide civil remedies only and a wife who wants to see her husband (rapist) punished finds no solution to that. Instead she is the one who struggles and suffers especially if she has children or is financially dependent or is without family support. The only lasting solution to the problem of marital rape is legal separation or annulment of the marriage itself. A legally separated wife can only file a complaint for rape against her husband under Section 376A[8] of IPC.[9] 3. Startling Statistics Marital rape is both common and an un-reported crime. A study conducted by the Joint Women Programme - an NGO, found that one out of seven married women had been raped by their husbands at least once. They frequently do not report these rapes because the law does not support them.[10] According to the UN Population Fund, more than two-thirds of married women in India, aged 15 to 49 years, have been beaten, or forced to provide sex.[11] Bertrand Russell in his book Marriage and Morals saw marriage as one of the most conventional forms of livelihood for a woman where the frequency of undesired intercourse she has to give in to is in all probabilities higher than that endured by a prostitute. [12] ?till the problem of marital rape has received very little attention from the activists, criminal justice system and the society at large. The concept of rape in marriage got recognition only after 1970s. The right of a husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife was considered to be one of the most natural implications of the contract of marriage.[13] International Instruments Article 2 of the Declaration of the Elimination of Violence against Women includes marital rape explicitly in the definition of violence against women.[14] Also the unanimous resolution at the UN conference in Beijing, September 1995 guarantees every woman the right to say no to sex as she wishes, specifically wives. In accordance with these Declarations and Conferences many countries have either enacted marital rape laws, repealed marital rape exceptions or have laws that do not distinguish between marital rape and ordinary rape. These States include Albania, Algeria, Australia (in 1991), Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mauritania, Mauritius (in 2007), New Zealand (under Crimes Act, 1961), Norway, the Philippines, Scotland, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, Tunisia, the United Kingdom (in 1991), the United States, and recently, Indonesia, Thailand (in 2007), Turkey (in 2005).[15] In England and Wales, the House of Lords held in 1991 that the status of married women had changed beyond all recognition. Lord Keith, compared a marriage of the modern times with a partnership of equals where the wife is no longer the subservient chattel of the husband.[16] 4. Rethinking of the existing law In India, the 42nd Law Commission Report (1972) suggested that marital rape should be criminalized. However, actions were not taken to that effect and the 84th Report (1980) was not in favour of the criminalization. In the year 1996 the Supreme Court of India in Bodhisattwa Gautam v. Subhra Chakraborty[17] classified rape as a crime against the basic human rights and a violation of the victim's most cherished of fundamental rights, namely, the right to life enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution. However, the Apex Court negated this very pronouncement by not recognizing marital rape.[18] This shows that the Indian courts as well as the law makers have made recommendations and pointed out the need for penalising marital rape several times. Still there has not been any substantial change in this field. 5. The gray areas There are a lot of loopholes in the Indian legal system when it comes to marital rape. It not only provides immunity to the rapist husband but is also silent with regard to a lot of questions. For example, there are no provisions to deal with the cases of rape which are committed by the husband in collusion with a third person or if rape is committed by both the husband and a third person. Whether the third person will only be punished for rape, or whether the husband, would escape punishment for marital rape owing to his relationship with the victim are some of the many questions which the law has failed to adequately answer.[19]  The honourable High Court of Delhi has rightly pointed out in the case of Meena & Anr. v. State & Anr.[20] on 17 October, 2012 where the Court observed that if a girl who is not the wife of the man but is below 16 years of age (15 as per the Criminal Law Amendment 2013) then even the consensual intercourse between the two amounts to rape. But if the girl is above 16 years and is wife of the man, then even the forced intercourse is not rape. This provision in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 is a specific illustration which shows that the legislature has legitimized the concept of child marriage by keeping a lower age of consent for marital intercourse. 6. The deep scars left from the crime Marital rape causes both mental as well as physical trauma which has severe and long-lasting consequences on women. The immediate physical and gynaecological effects of marital rape include injuries to private organs, lacerations, soreness, bruising, torn muscles, fatigue, vomiting, miscarriages, stillbirths, bladder infections. It may also lead to infertility and HIV. Rape in marriage has a lot of long-lasting psychological consequences also. It causes anxiety, shock, intense fear, depression, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, etc. [21] 7. Conclusion The concept of marital rape is an oxymoron. It is a rape under the veil of marriage. Marriage is not a licence for sex. Just because a woman says "I do" to marriage it does not mean that she has said "I do" to sex whenever, wherever, and however her husband wants it. Sex is not an implied 'right' under the contract of marriage rather it is a clear communication of love, mutual consent, caring and respect between husband and wife. A recent incident of gang rape and murder of a student on a bus in Delhi in 2012 led to a mass outcry. This outrage took place when the girl was raped by strangers. Had she been raped by her husband, would it have the same effect? If rape is the violation of human rights then it would continue to be a violation whether committed by her husband or a stranger. The dignity of women either married or unmarried is alike. She cannot be considered as a property or the subservient chattel of the husband In today's scenario we require generation of awareness along with judicial awakenings. What really needs to be done is to teach both boys and men to not rape and educate them to view women as valuable partners in every aspect of life.

Posted By

ASHISH SAMAL

1 week ago

Go to Blog

Who can claim Alimony Rights?

To put it bluntly, when women usually get divorce alimony legit claims are granted by the courts by default. Occasionally, the man may be able to prove that he had to undergo all sorts of harassment and the court on its part may decree that the female pay compensations. Conversely, the court’s decree could be that the husband reverts the ‘stree-dhan which essentially includes all assets that the woman had received when the man and the woman got married. All assets that the woman’s parents and in-laws gave her at the time of her marriage would have to be returned as well. For further read: What Do I Need to Know About Alimony before DivorceIs the claimant entitled to claim alimony rights? The alimony amount to be paid may vary and the court determines the amount on a case by case basis according to a divorce lawyer in IndiaFactors impacting alimony amount and duration are as follows:a) the duration of the wedding - if the couple’s marriage, for example, lasts for a decade the person entitled can claim maintenance for a lifetime b) age and health of the spouse – depending on the how well-off the payer is as well as whether the payer is the owner of properties c) the health condition of both spousesd) how the parties behave e) the spouse that gets child custody would be entitled to and therefore claim to either receive a higher amount for being the custodial parent of a minor child or the maintenance paid would be of a lesser amount f) Incurring the expenditure on account of raising the child g) the social status and the wife’s lifestyle as she and her husband lived together as married couples.h) any other aspect or circumstance of the case, that the court may consideri) husband’s any other legit liabilities, namely, fully dependent aging parents, that the courts have had evidence of by examining. If the wife has a job she would have an independent source of income which would be considered as well. Who can claim the alimony?Wife – In the case of the wife the possibilities are limited to three and they are as follows:a) if she is earning – if the man has a higher earning potential and comes from a decent financial background then she has entitlement and therefore can claim alimony.b) if she is not earning – in such a scenario, the man ought to ensure that the standard of living of the woman remains the same as it was during her married life c) if she remarries – remarriage of the woman would result in the man paying for the children only and the woman is exempted or excluded from alimony payments. The Hindu marriage act, 1955 and section 25 of the act, in particular, is the guideline or the guiding light for those who are under the ambit of the act. Section 25 of the act is appropriately applied with the granting of the final divorce decree. However, applying for this express purpose even after the granting of the divorce, the court will consider the application and alimony would be granted. Besides, all individual alimony claims can be canceled by the court if it's found later on that the person claiming alimony has remarried, or has had an extramarital affair.For further consultation, Vidhikarya can connect you with experienced lawyers.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

1 week ago

Go to Blog
{{ item.meta_value }}, {{ item.meta_key }}

Consult Top Torts Lawyers in India

Ajay Kumar Kamboj

Ajay Kumar Kamboj

Distt court Yamunanagar
Exp
Yamuna Nagar , Haryana

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Animal Laws
  • Election Campaign and Political Laws
  • Environment and Natural Resources
  • Intellectual Property
Leading eminiting lawyer practicing in Distt court Jagadhari at yamunanagar. contact no. 9467028511 View Full Profile
KumarKrishan Agarwal Agarwal

KumarKrishan Agarwal Agarwal

Mr KK Agarwal Associates Law F
Exp
Muzaffarnagar , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Advertising
  • Intellectual Property
  • International Laws
  • Landlord and Tenant
PARAMANANDA  MOHANTA

PARAMANANDA MOHANTA

Lawyer
Exp
Mayurbhanj , Orissa

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Election Campaign And Political Laws
Pawan K Pandey

Pawan K Pandey

Practicing
Exp
Mumbai City , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Aviation
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
  • Election Campaign and Political Laws
  • Environment and Natural Resources
VIvek  Mapara

VIvek Mapara

Lawyer
Exp
Ahmedabad , Gujarat

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Property
  • Criminal
  • Corporate and Incorporation
  • Advertising
Rajendra  Balkrishna Raorane

Rajendra Balkrishna Raorane

practising advocate in thane m
Exp
Thane , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Civil
  • Criminal
  • Landlord And Tenant
  • Power Of Attorney
Tanaji Sampatrav Thete

Tanaji Sampatrav Thete

Consumer Cases, Civil Court
Exp
Nashik , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Civil
  • Power of Attorney
  • Sale
  • Legal Notice
Sanket  Gupta

Sanket Gupta

Associate
Exp
Bikaner , Rajasthan

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Banking
  • Financial Markets and Services
  • Intellectual Property
  • Sale
Ajit  Shukla

Ajit Shukla

Advocate
Exp
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Employment and Labour
  • Civil
  • Administrative Law
  • Real Estate
I am Serving as an advocate at Allahabad High Court, Lucknow Bench View Full Profile
Anurag  Gupta

Anurag Gupta

Advocate
Exp
Agra , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Torts
  • Civil
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Landlord And Tenant
  • Power Of Attorney
Not Sure Whom to Consult ?
We will help you to find the best lawyer as per your budget !
Post Your Matter to explore various options.
Need Legal Advice
Post Your Matter
Connect with Expert Lawyers to Resolve
Your Legal Matter
  • What is Tort?
  • What is Tort Law?
  • What are the Important Aspects Torts?
  • What are the General Defences to Torts?
  • What are the Types of Torts?

What is Tort?


The origin of the word tort is the latin word ‘tortum’ which means ‘to twist’. Tort does not have a standard universal definition but the generic idea is that tort is a civil wrong for which the remedy is a common law action for unliquidated damages and which is not exclusively the breach of a contract or the breach of a trust or other merely equitable obligation. Not all civil wrongs are torts.

What is Tort Law?


Tort law in India is a relatively new common law development supplemented by codifying statutes including statutes governing damages. While India generally follows the UK approach, there are certain differences which may indicate judicial activism, hence creating controversy. Tort is breach of some duty independent of contract which has caused damage to the plaintiff giving rise to civil cause of action and for which remedy is available. If there is no remedy it cannot be called a tort because the essence of tort is to give remedy to the person who has suffered injury.

Important aspects of Law of Torts:


For an act to constitute a tort, it must satisfy certain conditions, there must be some act or omission on the part of the defendant, which in turn should have resulted in legal damage (injuria), i.e., violation of a legal right vested in the plaintiff.

The relevant factor for commission of tort is the presence of a ‘legal damage’ which need not be causing actual tangible damage, whereas, an act which is causing some substantial damage but not a legal damage would not constitute tort. For example, in cases of trespass, the person trespassing may not damage the property he entered but would still constitute a legal injury, whereas, in case a competitor due to whatever legal reasons may cause massive losses to another person but would still not have committed a Tortious act.

Torts don’t necessarily stem from Statutes only and can stem from common law principles. Torts in India stem like the other common law jurisdictions stems from both statute and common law.

General Defences to Torts:


There are certain defences which are of a generic nature and can be availed in most of the tort cases. They are the following-

  • Volenti non fit injuria – this refers to voluntary assumption of risk. When someone suffers harm with their own consent then it acts as a complete defence for the defendant. However, mere knowledge of the risk(scienti non fit injuria) does not imply consent, for example, if a driver is forced by his employer to drive a vicious horse and he drives that under protest, then he will be entitled to claim such compensation in case an injury is caused to him(Bowater v. Rawley Regis Corporation). Doctrine does not imply to rescue cases though.
  • Plaintiff the wrongdoer – No action arises from an immoral cause. If the harm suffered by the plaintiff is fundamentally linked with the wrong act of himself then the defendant may use it as a defence. For example, if the plaintiff drives an overloaded truck despite strict instructions not to, and eventually suffers harm due to the bridge breaking, then the defendant has a defence available. However, plaintiff is not disabled from recovering in tort unless some unlawful act or conduct on his own part is connected with the harm suffered by him as part of the same transaction.
  • Inevitable Accident – An unforeseeable & unavoidable accident in spite of reasonable care taken on defendant’s part acts as a defence. Inevitable refers to a situation wherein it was not avoidable by the precautions which a reasonable man would have implemented.
  • Act of God – It is similar to the idea of “Inevitable Accident”, but the forces here are forces of God/Nature, i.e., floods, storms, etc. It acts as a defence to the idea of “Strict Liability”.(summary of ‘strict liability’ is below)
  • Private Defence – Law permits use of reasonable force to protect one’s person or property. However there should be presence of an ‘imminent threat’.
  • Mistake – Mistake, whether of fact or law, is generally not a defence for torts. However, in torts requiring malice as an element, the liability does not arise when the defendant acts under an honest and mistaken belief.
  • Necessity – An act causing damage if done under necessity to prevent greater evil is not actionable even though harm was caused intentionally. For example, throwing goods overboard a ship to lighten it for saving the ship and persons on board the ship.
  • Statutory Authority – When an act is done under the authority of an Act, it is a complete defence and the injured party has no remedy except for claiming such compensation as may have been provided by the statute.

Types of Tort Law


There are three primary categories of tort law- intentional torts, negligent torts and strict liability torts. In India the concept of absolute liability also exists which shall be spoken of later.

  • Intentional torts are those torts which are committed with the intention of undergoing an activity which would end up in causing injuria (violation of legal right) of someone for example trespassing or battery(harmful or offensive contact with another person).
  • Negligent torts are those torts that are born out of negligence on part of person and not because of the intention to cause a legal harm to someone, for example, if someone breaks a cup in anger part of which end up hurting someone else. Then there are strict liability torts, sometimes seen as product liability torts, these are torts when there is an imposition of liability on a party even in the absence of finding of a fault like a tortious intent or negligence, for example the production head of a company being strictly liable even for a fault committed by a labourer working under him.
  • The concept of strict liability was discussed in the case of Rylands v. Fletcher. In this case, the defendant had constructed a water reservoir which his hired engineers ended up building on top of an abandoned coal mine, Rylands (the defendant) was unaware of this fact. Eventually the reservoir broke down and ended up harming Fletcher’s coal mines for which a lawsuit was subsequently filed. Rylands was held “strictly liable” and it was observed that a person who for his own purposes keeps on his land anything with the potential of causing mischief will be prima facie answerable for the damage which happens as a natural consequence of its escape.

In India, there is a unique concept known as the principle of “Absolute liability”. In the case of ‘M.C. Mehta v. Union of India’ there was leakage of oleum gas which caused harm to the people exposed to the gas leak. It was in Court’s mind that an year ago Bhopal Gas Tragedy had happened hence Court gave a judgement befitting of a crime of a nature which has the potential to cause such great tragedy. The ratio followed here was similar to the concept of Strict Liability with the addition of ‘Absolute Liability’ not being subjected to any of the exceptions or defences of the rule of Strict Liability.

Request a Callback for Legal Help


In case you want us to call you back to understand your legal problem then please submit your details with a brief description of the legal issue that you have. We will call you back.

Name must be provided !

Email must be provided !

Invalid Phone Number !

Details must be provided !

Want a Quick Legal Advice From Expert Lawyer
Call us at this number for Legal Help at an affordable price
7604047601
Legal Advice Anytime Anywhere

The most trusted and relied upon partner for hiring lawyers for any kind of legal services.

Not Sure Whom to Consult ?
We will help you to find the best lawyer as per your budget !
Post Your Matter to explore various options.
Need a Lawyer for Your Case ?
Post Your Matter
Get the best Lawyer
for your Case

Top Responding Lawyers
on Torts Laws

c0c3d251ed9ec09aa1a2e42aab190b76.jpg
Experience: 33 Year(s)
Retired Judge
Bangalore
57c4e587eb8d1f8118587949fee03c09.jpg
Experience: 14 Year(s)
Advocate and Legal Counsel
Kolkata
3a01cc6aa21855397e314eb84cfd223a.webp
Experience: 5 Year(s)
Lawyer
New Delhi
9434907e0136c51bd1ae1f8951e791b0.webp
Experience: 2 Year(s)
As a advocate
Aurangabad
96f7af615b9d69fb001d0eabf8624f63.jpg
Experience: 9 Year(s)
Lawyer and legal associate
Nagpur
bbeb09048874b1d40441.webp
Experience: 9 Year(s)
Adv.Ambrose Leo Associates & Legal Consultants
Bangalore
ed97dd09ba2326865a4467cbb2e8877b.webp
Experience: 18 Year(s)
Advocate
Chennai
a7380f76a37f95339ae0b26a6630369b.jpg
Experience: 5 Year(s)
Advocate
Patiala
c067b4786f04625249cc8b7a62389e6b.jpg
Experience: 1 Year(s)
Advocate, Madras high court
Chennai
7ca840377e76369734a338177b23adfd.jpg
Experience: 3 Year(s)
Advocate
Kolkata
090d5a222e6f7cab9481bb4042a79c69.webp
Experience: 20 Year(s)
Dr
New Delhi
93242ddb5f3bbe7e8eeeb394d718b1ec.webp
Experience: 22 Year(s)
Advocate
Bhubaneswar
a24c9c9c3a743f162cc475c80071fe4c.webp
Experience: 15 Year(s)
Advocate High Court
Kolkata
c145ced7ac4ad8d7f029e0f25bd83fed.webp
Experience: 1 Year(s)
Advocate
Kolkata
43da408ded866db2858a3b992d6410b1.jpg
Experience: 5 Year(s)
advocate
Nagpur
4841c22d1a959ded01c071ad410d81b4.webp
Experience: 15 Year(s)
Advocate
Panipat
59e854a50a441a116b44301cc6c50176.webp
Experience: 11 Year(s)
Attorney
South Delhi
498ccf42b276edbaf56567d1ccd4975a.webp
Experience: 19 Year(s)
Advocate
Bangalore
d6d5b47319eafdb8e3813667048e1699.webp
Experience: 3 Year(s)
Criminal Lawyer
Faridabad
c48c394179eb5d82a1140ede15febea1.webp
Experience: 12 Year(s)
Advocate
Thane
46ff77e9b7358b76ae473e673378e102.webp
Experience: 38 Year(s)
SENIOR LAWYER
Jabalpur
3d468e1c95191b06fce7.webp
Experience: 18 Year(s)
Advocate / Trial Advocate
Tirunelveli
cc45cf3809e36f0032b274972c66f02c.webp
Experience: 4 Year(s)
Advocate
Faridabad
U00070524.webp
Experience: 17 Year(s)
Lawyer,Attorney,Solicitor
Kanpur
542aa2c2cbaa8e3bef23c97f5b74d939.jpg
Experience: 17 Year(s)
Advocate
Patna
Talk to a Lawyer
Post Your Matter
Request Callback
Contact Us