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How police custody is different from judicial cust...

    How police custody is different from judicial custody    ©Two type of custody:-                               1) police custody                               2) judicial custody1) police custody: police custody means that police have a physical custody of the accused while judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the court .in the former ,the accused is lodged in lock-up of a police station Earlier accused were afraid of police custody as they were subjected to harassment and physical torture but such incident have become fewer after the SC judgements enumerated the rights of accused and brought many police officers to task for custodial torture . resourceful   accused , politicians as well as others, certainly enjoy immunity from third degree “ or, to use  americanese, enhanced interrogation methods ”  After lodging of an FIR for a cognizable offence (which provides for punishment of more than 3 years ) police arrest the accused to prevent him from tampering with evidence or influencing witnesses .within 24 hours of arrest , police produce the accused before a court ( mandatory under law ) and seek his remand to police custody to enable it to complete investigations expeditiously it is for police to decide how long it is warranted to keep the accused in its custody , which expires in 15 days . 2) What is judicial custody ? In serious offences , the court may accede to police request to remand the accused in judicial custody after the expiry of police custody so that evidence or witnesses are not tempered with law mandates filling of charge sheet in criminal cases within 90 days , if the charge sheet is not filed within 90 days the court normally grants bail to the accused . but in heinous crime / offences , like murder and rape . the accused is normally kept in judicial custody (kept in jail under the court’s custody ) for a longer time despite filing of the charge sheet so that the process of trial is not influenced .  The judicial custody may be of 60 days for all other crimes if the court is convinced that sufficient reasons exist, following which the accused or suspect must be released on bail by adv rameshwar y dadhe

Posted By

Rameshwar Dadhe

2 days ago

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FATHER’S CUSTODY RIGHTS IN INDIA

 The issue of ‘Child Custody’ crops up during divorce proceedings or judicial separation; it becomes an important issue to be decided by the courts. It refers to the process of controlling, caring and maintenance of the child less than 18 years of age by the custodial parent (the rights have been granted by court) under set parameters such as financial security, understanding with child, lifestyle, etc. The prime rights of nurturing the child with respect to education, development, medical, emotional, physical, etc. lies with the custodial parent while the non-custodial parent only holds the right to access and meet the child. In innumerable cases, both the parents are provided with access to the child, but the physical custody of the child is usually granted to one parent. The Family Courts while deciding on this need to keep the best interests of the child as of paramount importance.What is the Definition of Legal Custody?In a family law context, “Legal Custody” is a type of Child Custody that grants a parent the right to make important, long-term decisions regarding their child or children. This may include aspects of the child’s upbringing including:EducationMedical and dental careReligious upbringingFinancial decisionsTypes of Child Custody in India:-The Judiciary in India, in a number of innumerable judgments, has held the view that the best interest of the child in Child Custody cases, needs to be given utmost importance, surpassing all the legal provisions laid down. The court grants the right to child custody either to one or both the parents under certain rules and regulations. Evaluating the sensitivity in this matter, the Indian Law allows parents to seek Child custody as per its below mentioned forms, They are:Physical Custody: In physical custody, a child lives with the custodial parent and undertakes all the day to day activities.Joint Physical Custody: In joint physical custody the child lives with both the parents for a significant time period. In such a set-up, both the parents have equal rights on their child.Sole Custody: In Sole custody, the entire right to live with the child lies in the hands of one parent only. This often happens in cases where in the other parent is abusive, instable, violent or incapable in nature.Third Party Custody: In third party custody, none of the biological parents have any right on the child. Instead, the child custody is granted to the third person by the court. What the Legislation has a say about Child Custody?As per the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 the Hindu child below the age of 5 years shall be kept under the custody of the mother as till this age it is only the mother who can give proper emotional, moral as well as physical support to the child.The custody of a boy or an unmarried girl below the age of 18 years and above the age of 5 years shall be given to the father of the child as he is considered to be the natural guardian and only after his death, the custody shall be given to the mother.In case the child is illegitimate then the custody shall be with the mother itself.If the parents are not willing to take the custody of the child or if the court thinks that for the welfare of the child it would be better if he is not kept under the guidance of the parents then even a third person may be allotted the custody of a Hindu child. In this case usually, the grandparents are that paternal or maternal will be preferred to get the custody of that Hindu child if they are interested.If neither the parents nor any of the close relatives of the child are initiating to take the custody of the child then the court by itself shall find an appropriate person who could take the custody of the child.Which Parent Can Be Granted Legal Custody?At the present time, most courts attempt to grant both parents equal rights with regards to legal custody. This is to help the child interact with both parents rather than just one. However, in some cases, the court may grant only one parent legal custody. This is especially true where one of the parents is deemed unfit to make decisions on behalf of the child.When determining which parent should be granted legal custody, the courts may consider many different aspects, including:The parent’s mental, physical, and emotional ability to make legal decisions on behalf of another personThe relational history between the child and the parentWhether there has been any history of abuse, neglect, or other violationsThe arrangement between the parents regarding distribution of physical custodyWishes of the minor child, if he can form opinion on his own.Financial status of both the parents.As with any child custody decisions, legal custody determinations are made with the “best interests of the child” in mind. This means that the needs of the child take preference over any personal desires or intentions of either parent.Child Custody for Fathers: How can a Father Get Full Custody of His Child?When it comes to father custody rights, various questions can arise.Custody battles for fathers can sometimes be challenging. While most courts have discarded older notions that the mother is automatically the primary caregiver, many mothers and other persons in society still hold these types of notions, but there are some situation when a father can claim custody or even full custody of child by proving any of the following reasons given under. Father Gets the Custody In The Following Manner:-In India, it is believed that no one can be a better caregiver than a mother. Unfortunately, it is not true all the time.Though while giving the custody the mother is given the first priority, the father can get it by following ways:1.     If the mother is willing to give up the custody of the child, then the father may get custody.2.     If the mother is not mentally stable, the father is the next person to get custody of the child.3.     If the child is of 13 years or more and expresses his wish to stay with the father, the Court shall grant it to the father.4.     In case the mother is of an immoral character, which may affect the child as well, the father gets the custody.5.     If the father can prove the financial incapacity of the mother which shall in future affect the upbringing of the child and also prove his financial capability to take good care of the child. 6.     If the father can prove that the background of the mother has been in dark and that if the child will stay with the mother it will prove to be fatal to the upbringing of the child or shall affect his mental and physical growth. 7.     If the mother is a convict herself, the custody of the child shall thereafter go to the father. Although the above – mentioned points are few of which are used in the court to get custody. The same is not exhaustive and can vary depending from case to case on the basis of facts and circumstances.Can a Father Fight for Child Custody If He Is Not on the Birth Certificate?Whether or not a father’s name is listed on a birth certificatecan have significant impacts on their custody rights. In most cases, if the person’s name is listed as the child’s father on their birth certificate, courts will automatically conclude that they are the child’s legal father. They will then be granted various custody rights as the legal father of the child. In many cases, even if the person is not the child’s biological father, if their name is listed on the birth certificate as their father, courts may still grant them custody rights. They may also impose various duties on them, such as the duty to pay child support if this arises in the future. If the father’s name is not on the child’s birth certificate, they may often not be granted any custody rights over the child, whether partial or full custody. If they wish to gain legal rights, and they are the biological father of the child, they may need to undergo a paternity test to prove to the court that they are the biological father. CHILD CUSTODY LAWS:The law governing Child Custody cases in India, broadly, falls under following Act :-1.     Guardian and Wards Act, 18902.     Section 26 of Hindu Marriage Act,19553.     Hindu Adoption & Maintenance Act,19564.     Section 38 of Special Marriage Act, 19585.     Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 19566.     Custody Under Muslim Law7.     Custody Under Hindu Law PLACE WHERE CHILD CUSTODY CASE IS FILED:-Child custody cases are filed in the jurisdiction of the family court/competent court where minor child ordinarily resides. For example, father is living in Mumbai. Mother is living in Delhi along with minor child. If father wants to file Child Custody, he has to file the same only in Delhi. Thus, family court or concerned competent court shall have the exclusive jurisdiction over the child custody to the exclusion of all other courts.PROCEDURE TO FILE CHILD CUSTODY CASE:-A petition for child custody or declaration regarding appointment of natural or legal guardian of minor starts child with the filing of the petition by the spouse seeking child custody  application for Interim or Temporary custody as well as Visitation Rights.Custodial parent is required to give response to the petition following which evidence are led by both parents. After closure of evidence of by both parents and their respective witnesses, if any, follows with final arguments and consequent judgement.As stated above in certain situation and exigencies a writ petition under article 32 of the Constitution of India can be filed in the Supreme court or a write petition under article 226 of the Constitution of India can be filed. Key points:Child custody cases are emotionally taxing for parties, concerned counsels, as well as the Judge(s).Generally, the age of majority is eighteen years and in some cases it is twenty-one years.Nowadays courts often take the helps of experts such as counsellors, psychologist or other specialist dealing with issues of child custody.It is extremely interesting to note that all judgements that attain finality bound parties with the final outcome. However, the decision or the judgements of child custody cases are never final. It is a departure from the general law. To explain further, Custody of Child has been awarded by judgement or by mutual consent to one of the parent. However, the welfare of the child is prejudiced by the acts and omission of the custodial parent .CONCLUSION:-For a father, custody can be difficult to win, even though the courts do not discriminate against fathers. Whether you are a father going for full custody or joint custody,youshould be prepared for a difficult child custody battle,especially if the child's mother is also fighting for custody. Consider the following tips to help a father get custody.1.    Pay child support payments within time.2.    Build a strong relationship.3.    Give respect to the child and as well the mother.4.    Maintain accurate records.5.    Attend important school and social gatherings.6.    Make sure everything you are doing is for providing good life to your child.Children are mostly attached with their mothers, so when a father wants to have a custody or full custody he must think about his child’s wish and definitely what is good for their children’s life because custody battels are already traumatic and exhausting experience for a child to go through, so the first priority of a father should be to make sure that everything he is doing  for their children is to provide happiness and good life.

Posted By

Mrighankhi Chakraborty

3 days ago

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anil reddy  s

anil reddy s

Proprietor
Exp
Bangalore , Karnataka

Specialization

  • Advertising
  • Property
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Environment And Natural Resources
  • Landlord And Tenant
Total Answers Given : 14
Namitabh  Kothari

Namitabh Kothari

Advocate
Exp
Mumbai suburban , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Advertising
  • Civil
  • Criminal
  • Divorce
  • Cheque Bounce
18 Years of Legal Practice - Expert in Civil, Criminal, Family and all other types of Court cases Handling matters in Bombay High Court and all other Courts in Mumbai - Thane - Navi Mumbai - Pune View Full Profile
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Khansaeed  Pathan

Khansaeed Pathan

9
Exp
Beed , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Advertising
  • Criminal
  • Civil
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Child Custody
A confident, enthusiastic and self motivated professional with 9 years of qualitative experience in legal field; expert in handling civil & criminal litigations and consumer cases; View Full Profile
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Rhea  Luthra

Rhea Luthra

Independent Practising Lawyer
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Advertising
  • Commercial
  • Administrative Law
  • Arbitration And Mediation
  • Bankruptcy And Debt
I completed my law in the year 2017 from Jindal Global Law School and have been providing services in various fields of law, that is, Family, Property, Cheque Bounce, Civil, Consumer Court, Recovery and drafting and vetting of various agreements and documents. View Full Profile
Manoj  Ojha

Manoj Ojha

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Cuttack , Orissa

Specialization

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I am practicing and handling cases independently with a result oriented approach, both professionally and ethically and has now acquired excellent professional experience in providing legal consultancy and advisory services. View Full Profile
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Bhairav  Bhakare

Bhairav Bhakare

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Ahmednagar , Maharashtra

Specialization

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Advocate Roshan  Khatri

Advocate Roshan Khatri

MD & CEO of Khatri Law House
Exp
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

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Based in Lucknow, Khatri LAW HOUSE is a team of experts that aims at giving the best to its clients. It has been in the field for 17 years and upholds ‘Professional Excellence’ as its motto. Khatri LAW HOUSE is a one of the Top law firms in Lucknow. Our Lawyers in Lucknow provide a legal servi View Full Profile
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Nayagam  M S

Nayagam M S

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Chennai , Tamil Nadu

Specialization

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Abhay  Sahai

Abhay Sahai

Partner
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Central Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

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I am an independent advocate running a law firm in the name of B.C. Dasgupta & Co. The firm is one of the oldest firms in Delhi running since 1969. We expertise in all kinds of civil, corporate, matrimonial, property, advisory services, consumer matters etc. View Full Profile
Vinay  Pratap Singh

Vinay Pratap Singh

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Bhopal , Madhya Pradesh

Specialization

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  • What is Advertising law?
  • What is role of ASCI?
  • What are the laws governing Media in general?
  • Which products and services cannot be advertised?
  • What are the regulatory agencies in India?

What is Advertising law?


It refers to a body of laws associated to the mode and methodology of communicating and conveying details or particulars of any product or service to the public. The effective marketing is the key of every successful business. However, every business has some legal obligations to ensure that any claims or portrayal they construct in their advertisement are truthful or in some other way not violating the law.

What are the applicable laws to the topic of advertising?


Currently in India, there is no central statutory office or uniform enactment managing the advertising business. The Indian advertising market all in all is managed and controlled by a non-statutory body, the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI). Without uniform coordinated enactment, it is important for promoters to guarantee that a commercial is in consistence will all nearby and national notice laws.

Role of ASCI:


ASCI is a self-regulatory body constituted in 1985 for the promotion of ‘responsible advertising’. Its objectives include, upholding the honesty of representation & claims made, safeguarding the promotions of substances which are hazardous to society, and so on. The ASCI follows a ‘Code for the self-regulation in advertising’. This code is applicable to commissioning, creation, publishing of advertisements. Despite being non-statutory, the code has been given recognition under certain Indian legislations, with it being colloquially followed by the advertising industry

Laws governing Media in general (ASCI aims at complementing these laws, not being in conflict with them):


  • Electronic Media Monitoring Centre
  • Code of Conduct of the News Broadcaster Association
  • Cable Television Network Rules, 1994
  • The Press Council Act 1978
  • Code for Commercial Advertising on Doordarshan and All India Radio
  • Consumer Protection Act, 1986(for example provisions banning comparative advertising)
  • Laws related to Intellectual property rights

Some Products & Services which cannot be advertised:


  • Tobacco
  • Bar Council of India Rules do not allow the advertisement for lawyers or law firms.
  • As per Indian Medical Council (professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations,
  • physicians cannot advertise about their services.
  • Advertisements w.r.t. ’magical remedies’ of diseases. [The Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954]
  • Products related to sexuality may be allowed if they are in contravention with any statue in place, for example, Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act 1986.

Free Speech & Advertisements:


Article 19(1)(A) OF the Constitution provides the freedom of speech however this right is subject to certain restrictions. The ASCI Code makes policies keeping in mind the other statutes and legal principles and provides for certain grounds on which no advertisement can be associated with. Some of those grounds are the potential of inciting a mob towards disorder, denigration of any race/caste/colour etc., presentation of criminality as desirable and so on.

Some regulatory agencies in India:


  • Indian Broadcasting Foundation and Broadcasting Content Complaints Council (BCCC) – deals with complaints regarding content showcased on TV. The Secretary Broadcasting Content Complaints Council
    C/o Indian Broadcasting Foundation,
    B-304, Ansal Plaza, New Delhi 110047, India
    Phone Nos. +91 11 43794488
    Fax No. +91 11 43794455
    Email: bccc@ibfindia.com
    Website: www.ibfindia.com
  • ASCI’s Consumer Complaints Council – aims at redressing the grievances & complaints of consumers.
    The Secretary General,
    The Advertising Standards Council of India,
    219, Bombay Market, 78 Tardeo Road, Mumbai 400 034, India
    Tel: +91 22 23513982,
    Fax: +91 22 23516863,
    E-mail: asci@vsnl.com
    Website: www.ascionline.org
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) – FSSAI aims at providing scientific criterions related to articles of food.
    Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
    FDA Bhawan, Kotla Road, New Delhi-110002, India
    Email: admn@fssai.gov.in
    EPABX: +91 11 23236975
    Telefax: +91 11 23220994
    Web: www.fssai.gov.in

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