Who is a Juvenile?
Juvenile can be understood as a young person who has not attained adulthood yet. In other words, someone below the age of 18 years is said to be a juvenile in legal terminology. The term here specifically relates to children in conflict with law, i.e. those involved in antisocial or criminal activities. There are special provisions in India to deal with crimes that involve a child as an accused (person suspected to have committed such offence) in a legal matter. An advocate can help understand the legal context in case of doubts.
Law Relating to Juvenile Justice in India
The Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 is the law that lays provisions for dealing with criminal law matters that involve children as the accused. It mainly concerns children below the age of 18 years who are juvenile delinquents (children in conflict with law). Recent changes in the JJ Act, 2015 made the cases of persons above the age of 16 years triable in normal courts by criminal lawyers in case of heinous (serious) crimes. The duty falls upon juvenile court lawyers to prove before the judge whether the person is a juvenile and whether the matter is a heinous crime apart from proving the other material facts. The role of juvenile lawyers is crucial since such matters are sensitive keeping regard with the psychological wellness of the minor person concerned. The maximum punishment under JJ Act, 2015 is 3 years. But in case of heinous crimes committed by someone above 16 years, it could be more than 3 years since the matter is tried like a normal accused and punishment is in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Juvenile Court Lawyers
When the accused person is an underage person, i.e. a child below the age of 18 years, the criminal law trial takes place before juvenile courts (Juvenile Justice Board - JJB). Since matters are sensitive which may have long term psychological effects on the juvenile involved, the legal representatives also need to be critical during the process. Juvenile justice lawyers deal with such matters before the JJB one representing as juvenile defence criminal lawyers and the other standing for prosecution. There is a list of juvenile defence lawyers in India associated with Vidhikarya. The tasks handled by juvenile court lawyers surround proving the age of accused below 18 years apart from the material facts. On the other side, juvenile criminal defence lawyers prove the innocence of the juvenile while making sure that the trial takes place in a child friendly manner as supported by the Juvenile Justice Board.
Questions Related to Juvenile Criminal Lawyers
Q- Which age groups are treated in juvenile courts?
A- Criminal matters related to accused persons below the age of 18 years are heard before the Juvenile Justice Board. However, in case of heinous/ serious crimes, the maximum age limit is 18 years for cases to be heard before JJB. Even if a person attains the age of 18 years while the trial continues, it shall proceed before Juvenile Justice Board as if the person is still a juvenile.
Q- What do juvenile lawyers do?
A- The main task performed by juvenile court lawyers is to respect the sensitivity of criminal matters that involve a person below the age of 18 years whose matter is being heard before the Juvenile Justice Board. They may prove or disprove the age of juvenile delinquency apart from material facts and laws based on whether it is prosecution or juvenile criminal defence lawyers.
Q- How much does a juvenile lawyer cost?
A- The juvenile justice lawyer salary is not some exact figure. It varies depending upon the years of experience and success rate held by the concerned juvenile court lawyers in India. Facts of the case, i.e whether the evidence available against a juvenile proves his/ her guilt, also add to the juvenile lawyers fees.
Q- How to become a juvenile lawyer?
A- There is no special requirement to be fulfilled in order to become juvenile justice lawyers in India. Any law graduates can practice before the Juvenile Justice Board as juvenile criminal defence lawyers. However, subject matter expertise and required sensitivity for juvenile matters can help the concerned juvenile court lawyers to build a path of success for themselves.