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How police custody is different from judicial cust...

    How police custody is different from judicial custody    ©Two type of custody:-                               1) police custody                               2) judicial custody1) police custody: police custody means that police have a physical custody of the accused while judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the court .in the former ,the accused is lodged in lock-up of a police station Earlier accused were afraid of police custody as they were subjected to harassment and physical torture but such incident have become fewer after the SC judgements enumerated the rights of accused and brought many police officers to task for custodial torture . resourceful   accused , politicians as well as others, certainly enjoy immunity from third degree “ or, to use  americanese, enhanced interrogation methods ”  After lodging of an FIR for a cognizable offence (which provides for punishment of more than 3 years ) police arrest the accused to prevent him from tampering with evidence or influencing witnesses .within 24 hours of arrest , police produce the accused before a court ( mandatory under law ) and seek his remand to police custody to enable it to complete investigations expeditiously it is for police to decide how long it is warranted to keep the accused in its custody , which expires in 15 days . 2) What is judicial custody ? In serious offences , the court may accede to police request to remand the accused in judicial custody after the expiry of police custody so that evidence or witnesses are not tempered with law mandates filling of charge sheet in criminal cases within 90 days , if the charge sheet is not filed within 90 days the court normally grants bail to the accused . but in heinous crime / offences , like murder and rape . the accused is normally kept in judicial custody (kept in jail under the court’s custody ) for a longer time despite filing of the charge sheet so that the process of trial is not influenced .  The judicial custody may be of 60 days for all other crimes if the court is convinced that sufficient reasons exist, following which the accused or suspect must be released on bail by adv rameshwar y dadhe

Posted By

Rameshwar Dadhe

2 days ago

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FATHER’S CUSTODY RIGHTS IN INDIA

 The issue of ‘Child Custody’ crops up during divorce proceedings or judicial separation; it becomes an important issue to be decided by the courts. It refers to the process of controlling, caring and maintenance of the child less than 18 years of age by the custodial parent (the rights have been granted by court) under set parameters such as financial security, understanding with child, lifestyle, etc. The prime rights of nurturing the child with respect to education, development, medical, emotional, physical, etc. lies with the custodial parent while the non-custodial parent only holds the right to access and meet the child. In innumerable cases, both the parents are provided with access to the child, but the physical custody of the child is usually granted to one parent. The Family Courts while deciding on this need to keep the best interests of the child as of paramount importance.What is the Definition of Legal Custody?In a family law context, “Legal Custody” is a type of Child Custody that grants a parent the right to make important, long-term decisions regarding their child or children. This may include aspects of the child’s upbringing including:EducationMedical and dental careReligious upbringingFinancial decisionsTypes of Child Custody in India:-The Judiciary in India, in a number of innumerable judgments, has held the view that the best interest of the child in Child Custody cases, needs to be given utmost importance, surpassing all the legal provisions laid down. The court grants the right to child custody either to one or both the parents under certain rules and regulations. Evaluating the sensitivity in this matter, the Indian Law allows parents to seek Child custody as per its below mentioned forms, They are:Physical Custody: In physical custody, a child lives with the custodial parent and undertakes all the day to day activities.Joint Physical Custody: In joint physical custody the child lives with both the parents for a significant time period. In such a set-up, both the parents have equal rights on their child.Sole Custody: In Sole custody, the entire right to live with the child lies in the hands of one parent only. This often happens in cases where in the other parent is abusive, instable, violent or incapable in nature.Third Party Custody: In third party custody, none of the biological parents have any right on the child. Instead, the child custody is granted to the third person by the court. What the Legislation has a say about Child Custody?As per the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 the Hindu child below the age of 5 years shall be kept under the custody of the mother as till this age it is only the mother who can give proper emotional, moral as well as physical support to the child.The custody of a boy or an unmarried girl below the age of 18 years and above the age of 5 years shall be given to the father of the child as he is considered to be the natural guardian and only after his death, the custody shall be given to the mother.In case the child is illegitimate then the custody shall be with the mother itself.If the parents are not willing to take the custody of the child or if the court thinks that for the welfare of the child it would be better if he is not kept under the guidance of the parents then even a third person may be allotted the custody of a Hindu child. In this case usually, the grandparents are that paternal or maternal will be preferred to get the custody of that Hindu child if they are interested.If neither the parents nor any of the close relatives of the child are initiating to take the custody of the child then the court by itself shall find an appropriate person who could take the custody of the child.Which Parent Can Be Granted Legal Custody?At the present time, most courts attempt to grant both parents equal rights with regards to legal custody. This is to help the child interact with both parents rather than just one. However, in some cases, the court may grant only one parent legal custody. This is especially true where one of the parents is deemed unfit to make decisions on behalf of the child.When determining which parent should be granted legal custody, the courts may consider many different aspects, including:The parent’s mental, physical, and emotional ability to make legal decisions on behalf of another personThe relational history between the child and the parentWhether there has been any history of abuse, neglect, or other violationsThe arrangement between the parents regarding distribution of physical custodyWishes of the minor child, if he can form opinion on his own.Financial status of both the parents.As with any child custody decisions, legal custody determinations are made with the “best interests of the child” in mind. This means that the needs of the child take preference over any personal desires or intentions of either parent.Child Custody for Fathers: How can a Father Get Full Custody of His Child?When it comes to father custody rights, various questions can arise.Custody battles for fathers can sometimes be challenging. While most courts have discarded older notions that the mother is automatically the primary caregiver, many mothers and other persons in society still hold these types of notions, but there are some situation when a father can claim custody or even full custody of child by proving any of the following reasons given under. Father Gets the Custody In The Following Manner:-In India, it is believed that no one can be a better caregiver than a mother. Unfortunately, it is not true all the time.Though while giving the custody the mother is given the first priority, the father can get it by following ways:1.     If the mother is willing to give up the custody of the child, then the father may get custody.2.     If the mother is not mentally stable, the father is the next person to get custody of the child.3.     If the child is of 13 years or more and expresses his wish to stay with the father, the Court shall grant it to the father.4.     In case the mother is of an immoral character, which may affect the child as well, the father gets the custody.5.     If the father can prove the financial incapacity of the mother which shall in future affect the upbringing of the child and also prove his financial capability to take good care of the child. 6.     If the father can prove that the background of the mother has been in dark and that if the child will stay with the mother it will prove to be fatal to the upbringing of the child or shall affect his mental and physical growth. 7.     If the mother is a convict herself, the custody of the child shall thereafter go to the father. Although the above – mentioned points are few of which are used in the court to get custody. The same is not exhaustive and can vary depending from case to case on the basis of facts and circumstances.Can a Father Fight for Child Custody If He Is Not on the Birth Certificate?Whether or not a father’s name is listed on a birth certificatecan have significant impacts on their custody rights. In most cases, if the person’s name is listed as the child’s father on their birth certificate, courts will automatically conclude that they are the child’s legal father. They will then be granted various custody rights as the legal father of the child. In many cases, even if the person is not the child’s biological father, if their name is listed on the birth certificate as their father, courts may still grant them custody rights. They may also impose various duties on them, such as the duty to pay child support if this arises in the future. If the father’s name is not on the child’s birth certificate, they may often not be granted any custody rights over the child, whether partial or full custody. If they wish to gain legal rights, and they are the biological father of the child, they may need to undergo a paternity test to prove to the court that they are the biological father. CHILD CUSTODY LAWS:The law governing Child Custody cases in India, broadly, falls under following Act :-1.     Guardian and Wards Act, 18902.     Section 26 of Hindu Marriage Act,19553.     Hindu Adoption & Maintenance Act,19564.     Section 38 of Special Marriage Act, 19585.     Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 19566.     Custody Under Muslim Law7.     Custody Under Hindu Law PLACE WHERE CHILD CUSTODY CASE IS FILED:-Child custody cases are filed in the jurisdiction of the family court/competent court where minor child ordinarily resides. For example, father is living in Mumbai. Mother is living in Delhi along with minor child. If father wants to file Child Custody, he has to file the same only in Delhi. Thus, family court or concerned competent court shall have the exclusive jurisdiction over the child custody to the exclusion of all other courts.PROCEDURE TO FILE CHILD CUSTODY CASE:-A petition for child custody or declaration regarding appointment of natural or legal guardian of minor starts child with the filing of the petition by the spouse seeking child custody  application for Interim or Temporary custody as well as Visitation Rights.Custodial parent is required to give response to the petition following which evidence are led by both parents. After closure of evidence of by both parents and their respective witnesses, if any, follows with final arguments and consequent judgement.As stated above in certain situation and exigencies a writ petition under article 32 of the Constitution of India can be filed in the Supreme court or a write petition under article 226 of the Constitution of India can be filed. Key points:Child custody cases are emotionally taxing for parties, concerned counsels, as well as the Judge(s).Generally, the age of majority is eighteen years and in some cases it is twenty-one years.Nowadays courts often take the helps of experts such as counsellors, psychologist or other specialist dealing with issues of child custody.It is extremely interesting to note that all judgements that attain finality bound parties with the final outcome. However, the decision or the judgements of child custody cases are never final. It is a departure from the general law. To explain further, Custody of Child has been awarded by judgement or by mutual consent to one of the parent. However, the welfare of the child is prejudiced by the acts and omission of the custodial parent .CONCLUSION:-For a father, custody can be difficult to win, even though the courts do not discriminate against fathers. Whether you are a father going for full custody or joint custody,youshould be prepared for a difficult child custody battle,especially if the child's mother is also fighting for custody. Consider the following tips to help a father get custody.1.    Pay child support payments within time.2.    Build a strong relationship.3.    Give respect to the child and as well the mother.4.    Maintain accurate records.5.    Attend important school and social gatherings.6.    Make sure everything you are doing is for providing good life to your child.Children are mostly attached with their mothers, so when a father wants to have a custody or full custody he must think about his child’s wish and definitely what is good for their children’s life because custody battels are already traumatic and exhausting experience for a child to go through, so the first priority of a father should be to make sure that everything he is doing  for their children is to provide happiness and good life.

Posted By

Mrighankhi Chakraborty

3 days ago

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Consult Top Sale of Goods Lawyers in India

Shreyash  Mohta

Shreyash Mohta

Advocate
Exp
Kolkata , West Bengal

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Divorce
  • Domestic Violence
  • Family
  • Muslim Laws
Hi, this is Shreyash Mohta I have graduated from University of Calcutta and I am a practicing Advocate. I deal mostly with criminal & quasi criminal cases with exp of 1-1.5yrs. My prime area of expertise is in matters related to Family Disputes, Divorce, Domestic Violence, etc. View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 1611
anil reddy  s

anil reddy s

Proprietor
Exp
Bangalore , Karnataka

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Property
  • Advertising
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Environment And Natural Resources
Total Answers Given : 14
SUNDARAVADIVELU  VELU

SUNDARAVADIVELU VELU

Proprietor
Exp
Chennai , Tamil Nadu

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Tax-Income Tax
  • Civil
  • Partnership
  • Registration
SPECIALISED IN DIRECT AND INDIRECT MATTER, CHEQUE BOUNCE CRIMINAL CASES, PROPERTY DOCUMENTATION View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 10
V.K  Singh

V.K Singh

Law firm
Exp
Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Criminal
  • Commercial
  • Arbitration And Mediation
  • Contracts And Agreements
Highly experienced in criminal Law , handled High profile media highlighted criminal cases , regularly conducts seminars in Dubai and London on Indian Laws. Laws firm is having experts in Real estate , Criminal, property, IPR , corporate advisory as well as litigation in Supreme Court , High Court View Full Profile
Alankar  Narula

Alankar Narula

Advocate
Exp
Chandigarh , Chandigarh

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Contracts and Agreements
  • Intellectual Property, Copyright, Patent, Trademar
  • IT Contracts
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
Practicing lawyer in the High Court of Punjab and Haryana, Chandigarh and various other Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Courts across the country. Having worked with Fortune 500 clients, I specialise in corporate documentation and litigation along with general civil and criminal litigation. View Full Profile
naidu  n

naidu n

Senior Legal Consultant
Exp
Hyderabad , Telangana

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Civil
  • Admiralty and Maritime
  • Banking
  • Consumer Protection
We handle following litigations: Admiralty & Maritime, Arbitration, Banking, Business , Company law, Civil , Construction, consumer law, Corporation, Partnership, Criminal, Finance, Foreclosure, Franchise Law, Government, Insurance, Revenue matters, Shipping, Real Estate, Family, Divorce et., View Full Profile
S.S  Gosavi

S.S Gosavi

Advocate
Exp
Mumbai City , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Administrative Law
  • Consumer Protection
  • Commercial
  • Human Rights
I do provide legal services in the area of criminal,constitutional,civil,service and consumer laws by practicing in and before the Bombay High Court ,state commission ,MAT and various judicial and qusi-judicial authorities throughout and out of the Maharashtra for last 4 Years. View Full Profile
Khansaeed  Pathan

Khansaeed Pathan

9
Exp
Beed , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Criminal
  • Civil
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Child Custody
A confident, enthusiastic and self motivated professional with 9 years of qualitative experience in legal field; expert in handling civil & criminal litigations and consumer cases; View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 9
PARDEEP KUMAR DHINGRA

PARDEEP KUMAR DHINGRA

PARTNER WITH LAW FIRM
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Arbitration and Mediation
  • Bankruptcy and Debt
  • Contracts and Agreements
  • Commercial
16 years of Experience in fields of International & Domestic Arbitrations, Corporate & Commercial Litigation, Acquisition, Merger/Demerger, Regular Litigation in Property, Real Estate, Trade Mark, Copy Right, Recovery, Civil disputes, Contracts, Writ, LPA, SLP, FDI, ODI, NCLT (IBC, Insolvency)etc. View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 2
gunjan  shah

gunjan shah

Advocate
Exp
North 24 Parganas , West Bengal

Specialization

  • Sale of Goods
  • Divorce
  • Arbitration And Mediation
  • Commercial
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
Practicing as an advocate/private attorney at the Hon’ble High Court, Calcutta, District Courts, Tribunals such as Land Administrative Tribunals, Central and State Administrative Tribunals and Forums including The Consumer Forums and dealing in Arbitration matters as representing counsel. View Full Profile
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  • What is Sale of Goods Law?
  • What Laws are Applicable on Sale of Goods Law?
  • What is the Importance of Sale of Goods Act?

What is Sale of Goods Law?


Sale of Goods Laws are a kind of sub-branch of the Contract laws. These laws aim at facilitating the event of selling of goods in accordance with the relevant legal principles and ideas in mind. Barring the state of Jammu & Kashmir, this law is actionable to the whole of India.

Laws applicable on Sale of Goods Law-


  • Indian Sale of Goods Act 1930
  • Indian Contracts Act, 1872

What Indian Sale of Goods Act, 1930 says-


  • There must be a buyer & a seller w.r.t the contract which should be related to goods, i.e., movable property for this act to be applicable
  • All the essential elements of a Contract as per the Indian Contract Act are applicable here as well.
  • As per Section 2(7) of the Act, ‘goods’ refers to every kind of movable property apart from actionable claims & money (stocks & shares inclusive).

    Rights of Unpaid Seller-

    • Right of Lien – legal right of retaining possession of goods until the due consideration is received [Section 46(1)(a) and Section 47 to 49]
    • Right of Stoppage in Transit – seller has the right of preventing the transit of goods and reacquire possession until he receives the due consideration [Section 50 to 52]. He can do so even when the buyer becomes insolvent prior to the expiry of the initial credit period granted.
    • Right to Re-Sale – failure of providing the due consideration on part of the buyer within a reasonable time allows the unpaid seller for re-sale of his goods if the concerned goods are of a perishable nature, or if seller provided notice to buyer about his intention to resale despite which the buyer did not pay the due consideration, or if the seller expressly reserved his Resale rights.
    • The seller can also opt for resale if he had exercised his Right of Lien/ his right of stopping the transit but has to provide a notice to the buyer about the intention of re-sale to which he must respond to in a reasonable time. The seller may, on failure of the original buyer paying the due consideration, opt for re-sale and sue the original buyer for damages which may have occurred due to the breach of contract on the buyer’s part. [Section 54(2) of the Act]
    • Right of Withholding Delivery – when goods haven’t passed to the buyer and are still in seller’s possession he may retain the possession till he is paid. It is similar to the concept of ‘Right to Lien’.
    • Suit for Price- As per Section 55 of the Act, unpaid seller has the right to sue the buyer for price. As per Section 56 of the Act, the seller may sue for damages regarding ‘non-acceptance’ when the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods.

    Rights of Buyer-

    • As per Sections 31 & 32, he has the claim to the delivery of goods as per the agreed terms. He can reject goods if they don’t match the description provided for as per the agreement.
    • As per Section 41, buyer has the right of enjoying reasonable opportunity of the inspection of concerned goods.
    • As per Section 57, the buyer can sue the seller in the event of the seller refusing or wrongfully neglecting the delivery of goods.

Some important facts and cases about and under Adoption law


Personal belief and faith cannot dictate the adoption
In the case of Shabnam Hashmi Vs. Union of India and Others, 2005, the Supreme Court has decreed that prospective parents irrespective of their religious background are free to adopt children after the prescribed procedure. The court in its order said that 'personal beliefs and faiths, though must be honoured, cannot dictate the operation of the provisions of an enabling statute.

Interest of the Child comes first
Noting that the interests should be kept “first and foremost” during adoption, the Supreme Court on Monday directed the Centre and the States to frame regulations under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015 to implement the new guidelines for in-country and inter-country adoption to make the process transparent, friendly and fool-proof.
“Whether it is in-country or inter-country adoption, the interest of the child should be supreme. There should be no compromise whatsoever,” Chief Justice of India T.S. Thakur, who headed a three-judge Bench, told the Centre.

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