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How is an NGO, a Trust and a Foundation Different?

From a legal standpoint, there is hardly any difference. An NGO or a Foundation cannot be registered. The legal viewpoint is that an NGO has one of three entities; its either a Public Trust or a Society or a not-for-profit organization or foundation. Under the Income Tax Act, all 3 entities are tax-exempt entities.Both trust and society alike are two types of a non-profit or non-government organization in India. Therefore if anyone intends on doing social work and for this purpose needs a legal entity, then either a trust or a society can be registered. One can also register a company under section 25 but in most cases, a registered is a norm or society for benevolent work.Trust is a comparatively simpler entity and can be easily registered and operated. Such organizations are fundamentally rooted in trust. Donations are purely based on trust that the donated funds would be fully utilized to serve the purpose mentioned in one’s trust deed. Trustees do not owe any explanation to anyone other than the Charity Commissioner and the applicable laws. Any tax breaks u/s 80g and 12a can be revoked if trustees do not abide by the rules, laws, and regulations of the Income Tax department. Analyzing NGO Registration people seem to think that even with lack of funds if NGO registration is done then their goals and objectives can be attained. Truth is as quickly as some NGOs are being registered they are also winding up quickly or even leaving it in the middle. If NGOs are registered with the intention or mindset of obtaining external grants and donations then such NGOs would not be sustainable in the long run. A company donating a chunk of funds to charity on a regular basis, then in such cases an NGO can be registered with enhanced sustainability planning.  In India, there are many registered NGOs only on paper and only about a little over half of NGOs are actually working for the betterment of society. NGOs can be formed in no time at all. However, when project funds from local government schemes or contributions from foreign countries are on hold indefinitely then the entire NGO comes to a screeching halt. Rather than looking for easier options for forming an NGO, for NGO registration its imperative to analyze the actual requirement and the strength to form, manage and maintain such NGO is far more important.Call 7604047601 for consultation with a registered expert Trust and Society NGO lawyers on Vidhikarya.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

4 weeks ago

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Why is RTI Amendment Bill So Controversial?

Although the Lok Sabha has passed and ratified The Right to Information Amendment Bill 2019 the Opposition is dead against it. Invectives like ‘dangerous’ and ‘dark day for democracy’ have been hurled against the bill. Changes have been suggested in regard to the terms and conditions of appointment of information commissioners at the center and state levels. The three provisions of the RTI amendment bill have been challenged by the members of Opposition in Parliament and by protesters in the field.Nonetheless, prior to going forward, the basic things that the RTI Act of 2005 does is based on the existing law which says that the public authorities are required to disclose on·        their organization, functions, and structure·        rights and duties of its officers and employees·        financial dataIf the public authorities do not provide the required information of their own volition, then, in that case, its citizen’s right to demand it from them based on the RTI Act. "Public authorities" refer to ministers and government servants among others.The head of the central information commission is the chief information commissioner and other information commissioners appointed by none other than the President representing the Central Government for a fixed term of five years with the salary of the chief election commissioner’s, as well as the election commissioner's salary respectively. The intent and purpose of this initiative were granting autonomous powers to the central information commission as well as provide protection from government surveillance. The amendments ` ` ` `The RTI amendment bill of 2019, excludes the five years tenure of the chief information commissioners and the information commissioners. The payouts on account of salary have been revised. Separate notifications will be sent by the government to both. Politically, what this means is that the government can and will pose a threat or entice the chief information commissioner and information commissioners with random removal or extension and curtailment or increase in salary depending upon their suitability for the ruling dispensation.Call 7604047601 for consultation with a registered expert right to information lawyer on Vidhikarya.

Posted By

Avik Chakravorty

4 weeks ago

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Consult Top Mergers and Acquisition Lawyers in India

Law Juris Solicitors & Consultants

Law Juris Solicitors & Consultants

Managing Partner
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Commercial
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • International Laws
  • Landlord And Tenant
The Firm is engaged in diverse areas of Law provides spectrum of legal services to domestic and international clients which includes multinationals, (PSU) and private corporate. The firm has dedicated team of lawyers, technical experts, chartered Accountants and Company secretaries committed to meet View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 18
Fareed  Ahmed

Fareed Ahmed

Verum Legal Associates - Partn
Exp
Mumbai City , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Civil
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Financial Markets And Services
  • International Laws
Total Answers Given : 3
Precinct  Legal

Precinct Legal

Partner
Exp
Bangalore , Karnataka

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Bankruptcy and Debt
  • Civil
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Contracts and Agreements
Precinct Legal is a full service law firm based out of Bangalore catering to all the legal needs, be it litigation or corporate. View Full Profile
HARISH  KAUSHIK

HARISH KAUSHIK

Advocate
Exp
Central Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Civil
  • Criminal
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Domestic Violence
Advocate Harish Kaushik has been practicing and handling cases independently with a result oriented approach, both professionally and ethically and has now acquired over 8 years of professional experience in providing legal consultancy and advisory services. View Full Profile
Asha Narayan Nair

Asha Narayan Nair

BA.LLM (Senior Advocate)
Exp
Mumbai City , Maharashtra

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Criminal
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Debt and Lending Agreement
Kamendu  Joshi

Kamendu Joshi

Managing Partner
Exp
Ahmedabad , Gujarat

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Real Estate
  • Contracts And Agreements
  • Corporate And Incorporation
  • Employment And Labour
Kamendu Joshi & Associates is a full service law firm, based at Ahmedabad (Gujarat) offering the most trusted legal service to clients across the Country including Delhi (NCR), Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Surat, Vadodara.We are distinguished not only by the depth and scope of our leg View Full Profile
Anilesh  Tewari

Anilesh Tewari

Advocate, Founder AT Law Chamber
Exp
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Cheque Bounce
  • Real Estate
  • Consumer Protection
  • Contracts and Agreements
Advocate Anilesh Tewari has been practicing and handling cases independently with a result oriented approach, both professionally and ethically and has now acquired many years of professional experience in providing legal consultancy and advisory services. He is an alumni of Jamia Millia Islamia. View Full Profile
PARDEEP KUMAR DHINGRA

PARDEEP KUMAR DHINGRA

PARTNER WITH LAW FIRM
Exp
South Delhi , Delhi

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Arbitration and Mediation
  • Bankruptcy and Debt
  • Contracts and Agreements
  • Trust And Society (NGO)
16 years of Experience in fields of International & Domestic Arbitrations, Corporate & Commercial Litigation, Acquisition, Merger/Demerger, Regular Litigation in Property, Real Estate, Trade Mark, Copy Right, Recovery, Civil disputes, Contracts, Writ, LPA, SLP, FDI, ODI, NCLT (IBC, Insolvency)etc. View Full Profile
Total Answers Given : 2
gunjan  shah

gunjan shah

Advocate
Exp
North 24 Parganas , West Bengal

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Divorce
  • Arbitration And Mediation
  • Debt And Lending Agreement
  • Debt Collection
Practicing as an advocate/private attorney at the Hon’ble High Court, Calcutta, District Courts, Tribunals such as Land Administrative Tribunals, Central and State Administrative Tribunals and Forums including The Consumer Forums and dealing in Arbitration matters as representing counsel. View Full Profile
Vinay  Pratap Singh

Vinay Pratap Singh

ADVOCATE
Exp
Bhopal , Madhya Pradesh

Specialization

  • Mergers and Acquisition
  • Civil
  • Advertising
  • Animal Laws
  • Aviation
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  • What is Mergers & Acquisitions Laws?
  • What is a merger?
  • What is an acquisition?
  • What is a takeover?
  • What is the need for Mergers & Acquisitions Laws?
  • How is Mergers & Acquisitions Laws legally recognized in India?

Vidhikarya will help you find a most suitable lawyer, for you in your city, who will be able to answer all your Mergers & Acquisitions Laws related queries and also guide you on how to resolve this matter with ease.

About the Mergers & Acquisitions Laws


The term 'merger' isn't characterized under the Companies Act, 1956 ("CA 1956"), and under Income Tax Act, 1961 ("ITA"). Be that as it may, the Companies Act, 2013 ("CA 2013") without entirely characterizing the term clarifies the idea. A 'merger' is a mix of at least two elements into one; the coveted impact being not only the gathering of advantages and liabilities of the particular elements, however association of such elements into one business. The conceivable goals of mergers are multidimensional - economies of scale, procurement of innovations, access to parts/markets and so forth. By and large, in a merger, the combining elements would stop to be in presence and would converge into a solitary surviving substance. There are several types of mergers, some of them are horizontal mergers take place between competing businesses, vertical mergers which refers to mergers between businesses that belong to different stages of the production process (a shoe company merging with a company manufacturing leather), conglomerate mergers which refers to merger between organisations belonging to unrelated industries.

Regularizing and Legal Recognition of Mergers & Acquisitions Laws

Sections 390 to 394 & Sections 230 to 234 of the Companies Act 1956 look into the regulation of mergers.

Since a merger essentially involves an arrangement between the merging companies and their respective shareholders, each of the companies proposing to merge with the other(s) must make an application to the Company Court5 having jurisdiction over such company for calling meetings of its respective shareholders and/or creditors. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 2011 (the Takeover Code) restricts and regulates the acquisition of shares, voting rights and control in listed companies. Section 395 of the Companies Act envisages a complete takeover or squeeze-out without resort to court procedures. Section 395 provides that if a scheme or contract involving the transfer of shares or a class of shares in a company (the ‘transferor company’) to another company (the ‘transferee company’) is approved by the holders of at least 9/10ths (in value) of the shares whose transfer is involved, the transferee company may give notice to the dissenting shareholders that it desires to acquire the shares held by them.

Under the Companies Act 2013, if a person or group of persons acquire 90% or more of the shares of a company, then such person(s) have a right to make an offer to buy out the minority shareholders at a price determined by a registered valuer in accordance with prescribed rules.

The Takeover Code is applicable in cases of acquisition. Under the Takeover Code, an acquirer is mandatorily required to make an offer to acquire shares from the other shareholders in order to provide an exit opportunity to them prior to consummating the acquisition, if the acquisition fulfils the conditions as set out in Regulations 3, 4 and 5 of the Takeover Code. Under the Takeover Code, the obligation to make a mandatory open offer by the acquirer is triggered in the certain events.

Acquisition / Takeover


An 'acquisition' or 'takeover' is the buying by an individual, of controlling interest in the share capital, or all or significantly the greater part of the assets as well as liabilities, of the target. A takeover might be friendly or hostile, also, it might be affected through settlements between the offeror and the bulk shareholders, buying of shares from the open market, or by making an offer for acquisition of the target’s shares to the whole group of shareholders.

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