Mutation of Property in India: Significance and Process

Posted On : January 18, 2024
Mutation of Property in India: Significance and Process
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In India, the mutation of property in India holds significant importance in the realm of real estate transactions. Often perceived as a complex legal process, property mutation is a crucial step in establishing ownership rights and updating land records. Understanding the nuances of property mutation is essential for property owners, buyers, and sellers alike.

What is Property Mutation?

Property mutation, also known as 'Dakhil-Kharij' or 'Transfer of Property,' refers to the process of updating land or property records to reflect changes in ownership due to sale, inheritance, gift, or any other transfer mode. This update is recorded in the revenue records maintained by local municipal bodies or revenue departments. Mutation does not confer ownership but records the transfer of rights in official records.

Importance of Property Mutation

Legal Recognition: Mutation establishes the legal ownership of a property. It acts as prima facie evidence of possession and is often required during property disputes, legal proceedings, or availing of government services.

Taxation and Revenue Records: Updated mutation records are crucial for determining property taxes, assessing land value, and maintaining accurate revenue records.

Property Transactions: During property sales, buyers often verify mutation records to ensure that the seller has legal authority to transfer the property. It helps in avoiding fraudulent transactions and disputes.

Procedure for Property Mutation in India

The process of property mutation varies across states and municipalities. However, the general steps involved are:

Application Submission: The property owner or the person with a legal interest in the property must submit an application for mutation to the local municipal authority or revenue department. The application form, along with necessary documents, such as sale deed, identity proof, and property tax receipts, must be furnished.

Verification and Inspection: The concerned authorities conduct a site inspection to verify the details mentioned in the application. This includes confirming the ownership, dimensions, and other relevant information.

Mutation Entry: Upon verification, the authorities update the land records to reflect the changes in ownership. A mutation entry or 'Dakhil-Kharij' entry is made in the revenue records, acknowledging the transfer of rights.

Issuance of Updated Records: Once the mutation is processed, updated records reflecting the new ownership details are issued to the applicant.

Challenges and Delays

Property mutation in India often faces challenges due to bureaucratic processes, incomplete documentation, or disputes over ownership. Delays in mutation can hinder property transactions, affecting buyers and sellers alike. Moreover, outdated records or discrepancies can lead to legal issues and difficulties in availing government services.


Property mutation is a pivotal step in maintaining accurate land records and establishing ownership rights in India. Property owners must proactively initiate and follow up on mutation applications to ensure updated and accurate records. Additionally, streamlining the mutation process, leveraging technology, and addressing administrative bottlenecks can significantly improve efficiency and transparency in property transactions. Understanding the intricacies of property mutation empowers individuals to navigate the complexities of real estate dealings in India. To know more about mutation of property in India, it is advisable to consult a property lawyer in your city. For example, if you are residing in Kolkata, you must contact a property lawyer in Kolkata.


  1. Is mutation proof of ownership?
    Property mutation in India is not a conclusive proof of ownership but serves as an official record of changes in property rights. It reflects the transfer of rights in land or property within revenue records maintained by local authorities, supporting ownership claims but not establishing ownership definitively.

  2. Can we sell property after mutation?
    Yes, property can be sold after mutation. Mutation updates the official records to reflect the change in ownership, enabling the legal transfer of the property from the seller to the buyer.

  3. What is the difference between deed and mutation?
    A deed is a legal document that signifies the transfer of ownership or rights to a property from one party to another, outlining the terms and conditions of the transfer. Mutation, on the other hand, is the official change made in land or property records by local authorities to reflect the updated ownership status after a transaction, serving as a record of the change in ownership but not a legal instrument of transfer.

  4. What is the mutation process?
    The mutation process involves submitting an application, along with necessary documents, to the local municipal or revenue authority to update land or property records. This includes verification of details, site inspections, and updating records to reflect changes in ownership or rights, issuing updated records upon completion.
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